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   2014| March-April  | Volume 48 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 13, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Tubercular spondylitis in children
Anil K Jain, Ravi Sreenivasan, R Mukunth, Ish Kumar Dhammi
March-April 2014, 48(2):136-144
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128747  PMID:24741133
Spine of the child has unique anatomy and growth potential to grow to adult size. Tuberculosis (TB) spine results in bone loss as well as disturbed growth potential, hence spinal deformities may progress as the child grows. The growth potential is also disturbed when the disease focus is surgically intervened. Surgery is indicated for complications such as deformity, neurological deficit, instability, huge abscess, diagnostic dilemma and in suspected drug resistance to mycobacterium tuberculosis. The child on antitubercular treatment needs to be periodically evaluated for weight gain and drug dosages need to be adjusted accordingly. The severe progressive kyphotic deformity should be surgically corrected. Mild to moderate cases should be followed up until maturity to observe progression/improvement of spinal deformity. The surgical correction of kyphotic deformity in active disease is less hazardous than in a healed kyphosis. The internal kyphectomy by extra pleural approach allows adequate removal of internal salient in paraplegic patients with healed kyphotic deformity.
  9 4,334 407
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients
Roop Singh, Rajesh K Rohilla, Gaurav Saini, Kiranpreet Kaur
March-April 2014, 48(2):168-177
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128760  PMID:24741139
Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC), body composition [lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05) and LBM ( P < 0.05) and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM) and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001), arm LBM ( P < 0.01) and fat percentage ( P < 0.01) compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.
  7 1,649 93
Outcome of single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66 cage
Xi Yang, Limin Liu, Yueming Song, Qingquan Kong, Jiancheng Zeng, Chongqi Tu
March-April 2014, 48(2):152-157
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128753  PMID:24741136
Background: Cages have been widely used for the anterior reconstruction and fusion of cervical spine. Nonmetal cages have become popular due to prominent stress shielding and high rate of subsidence of metallic cages. This study aims to assess fusion with n-HA/PA66 cage following one level anterior cervical discectomy. Materials and Methods: Forty seven consecutive patients with radiculopathy or myelopathy underwent single level ACDF using n-HA/PA66 cage. We measured the segmental lordosis and intervertebral disc height on preoperative radiographs and then calculated the loss of segmental lordosis correction and cage subsidence over followup. Fusion status was evaluated on CT scans. Odom criteria, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and Visual Analog Pain Scales (VAS) scores were used to assess the clinical results. Statistically quantitative data were analyzed while Categorical data by χ2 test. Results: Mean correction of segmental lordosis from surgery was 6.9 ± 3.0° with a mean loss of correction of 1.7 ± 1.9°. Mean cage subsidence was 1.2 ± 0.6 mm and the rate of cage subsidence (>2 mm) was 2%. The rate of fusion success was 100%. No significant difference was found on clinical or radiographic outcomes between the patients (n=27) who were fused by n-HA/PA66 cage with pure local bone and the ones (n=20) with hybrid bone (local bone associating with bone from iliac crest). Conclusions: The n-HA/PA66 cage is a satisfactory reconstructing implant after anterior cervical discectomy, which can effectively promote bone graft fusion and prevent cage subsidence.
  3 3,569 109
REVIEW ARTICLES
The timing of surgery in lumbar disc prolapse: A systematic review
Ashutosh B Sabnis, Ashish D Diwan
March-April 2014, 48(2):127-135
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128740  PMID:24741132
Herniation of nucleus pulposus leading to leg pain is the commonest indication for lumbar spine surgery. However, there is no consensus when to stop conservative treatment and when to consider for surgery. A systematic review of literature was done to find a consensus on the issue of when should surgery be performed for herniation of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine was conducted. Electronic database searches of Medline, Embase and Pubmed Central were performed to find articles relating to optimum time to operate in patients with herniation of nucleus pulposus in lumbar spine, published between January 1975 and 10 December 2012. The studies were independently screened by two reviewers. Disagreements between reviewers were settled at a consensus meeting. A scoring system based on research design, number of patients at final followup, percentage of patients at final followup, duration of followup, journal impact factor and annual citation index was devised to give weightage to Categorize (A, B or C) each of the articles. Twenty one studies fulfilled the criteria. Six studies were of retrospective design, 13 studies were of Prospective design and two studies were randomized controlled trials. The studies were categorized as: Two articles in category A (highest level of evidence), 12 articles in category B (moderate level of evidence) while seven articles in Category C (poor level of evidence). Category A studies conclude that duration of sciatica prior to surgery made no difference to the outcome of surgery in patients with herniation of nucleus pulposus in the lumbar spine. Ten out of 12 studies in Category B revealed that longer duration of sciatica before surgery leads to poor results while 2 studies conclude that duration of sciatica makes no difference to outcome. In category C, five studies conclude that longer duration of sciatica before surgery leads to poor outcome while two studies find no difference in outcome with regards to duration of sciatica. A qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed which favoured the consensus that longer duration of sciatica leads to poorer outcome. A systematic and critical review of literature revealed that long duration of preoperative leg pain lead to poor outcome for herniation of nucleus pulposus. Only a broad time frame (2-12 months) could be derived from the review of literature due to lack of high quality studies and variable and contrasting results of the existing studies. While surgery performed within six months was most commonly found to lead to good outcome of surgery, further studies are needed to prove this more conclusively. At this stage it is felt that time alone should not be the basis of recommending surgery and multiple other variables should be considered in a shared decision making process between the surgeon and the patient.
  3 4,154 456
CASE REPORTS
Double crush syndrome due to plating of humeral shaft fracture
Yi-Gang Huang, Shi-Min Chang
March-April 2014, 48(2):223-225
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128774  PMID:24741148
Median nerve injury is rarely associated with the humeral shaft fracture. Sixty two year old woman with a displaced humeral shaft fracture, developed a symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome after plating with a screw protruding medially. 16 months later, the implants were removed and the symptoms gradually improved without carpal tunnel release surgery. A double crush syndrome resulted due to the proximal compression by the medially protruding screw and the distal compression by carpal tunnel. The proximal decompression produced by removal of the screw led to relief of the symptoms.
  2 1,664 192
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Unstable Jefferson fractures: Results of transoral osteosynthesis
Yong Hu, Todd J Albert, Christopher K Kepler, Wei-Hu Ma, Zhen-Shan Yuan, Wei-Xin Dong
March-April 2014, 48(2):145-151
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128750  PMID:24741135
Background: Majority of C 1 fractures can be effectively treated conservatively by immobilization or traction unless there is an injury to the transverse ligament. Conservative treatment usually involves a long period of immobilization in a halo-vest. Surgical intervention generally involves fusion, eliminating the motion of the upper cervical spine. We describe the treatment of unstable Jefferson fractures designed to avoid these problems of both conservative and invasive methods. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 12 patients with unstable Jefferson fractures treated with transoral osteosynthesis of C 1 between July 2008 and December 2011 was performed. A steel plate and C 1 lateral mass screw fixation were used to repair the unstable Jefferson fractures. Our study group included eight males and four females with an average age of 33 years (range 23-62 years). Results: Patients were followed up for an average of 16 months after surgery. Range of motion of the cervical spine was by and large physiologic: Average flexion 35° (range 28-40°), average extension 42° (range 30-48°). Lateral bending to the right and left averaged 30° and 28° respectively (range 12-36° and 14-32° respectively). The average postoperative rotation of the atlantoaxial joint, evaluated by functional computed tomography scan was 60° (range 35-72°). Total average lateral displacement of the lateral masses was 7.0 mm before surgery (range 5-12 mm), which improved to 3.5 mm after surgery (range 1-6.5 mm). The total average difference of the atlanto-dens interval in flexion and extension after surgery was 1.0 mm (range 1-3 mm). Conclusions: Transoral osteosynthesis of the anterior ring using C 1 lateral mass screws is a viable option for treating unstable Jefferson fractures, which allows maintenance of rotation at the C 1-C 2 joint and restoration of congruency of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints.
  2 2,983 94
Mucoid degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament: Management and outcome
Vivek Pandey, CPS Suman, Swati Sharma, Sripathi P Rao, KV Kiran Acharya, Charudutt Sambaji
March-April 2014, 48(2):197-202
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128765  PMID:24741143
Background: Mucoid degeneration (MD) is a rare pathological affection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Mucinous material within the substance of ACL produces pain and limited motion in the knee. This series describes the clinicoradiological presentation of patients with mucoid ACL, partial arthroscopic debridement of ACL and outcomes. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 years, 11 patients were included based upon the clinical suspicion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, arthroscopic features and histopathologic confirmation of MD of ACL. Result: Six patients were male and five were female with median age of 40 years (range 21-59 years). All patients complained of knee pain with median duration of 5 months (range 1-24 months). All patients had painful deep flexion with 63.6% (N = 7) reporting trivial trauma before the onset of symptoms. MRI revealed MD of ACL in all with associated cyst in three patients. Partial debridement of ACL was done in ten and complete in one patient. None of them required notchplasty. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis in all of them. At the mean followup of 13.81 months (range 6-28 months), all patients regained complete flexion and none complained of instability. Conclusion: Prior knowledge of condition with high index of suspicion and careful interpretation of MRI can establish the diagnosis preoperatively. It responds well to partial debridement of ACL and mucinous material without development of instability.
  2 14,736 478
CASE REPORTS
Recurrent primary lumbar vertebra chondrosarcoma: Marginal resection and Iodine-125 seed therapy
Chunpeng Ren, Jiancheng Zeng, Yueming Song, Xiandi Wang
March-April 2014, 48(2):216-219
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128772  PMID:24741146
Chondrosarcomas are uncommon in the spinal column. En bloc excisions with wide margins are of critical importance but not always feasible in spine. We report the outcome in a case of recurrent lumbar vertebral chondrosarcoma treated with marginal resection and iodine-125 seeds placed in the resected tumor bed.
  1 1,495 82
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients
Sachin Upadhyay, Haroon Khizir Taqi Raza
March-April 2014, 48(2):226-226
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128776  PMID:24741149
  1 1,029 133
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Percutaneous vertebroplasty in painful refractory vertebral hemangiomas
RV Narayana, Rajesh Pati, Sibasankar Dalai
March-April 2014, 48(2):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128759  PMID:24741138
Background: Painful vertebral hemangiomas are often inadequately managed medically. We evaluated the outcome of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in the treatment of painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management. Materials and Methods: 14 patients (four thoracic and ten lumbar vertebra) with painful vertebral hemangiomas presenting with severe back pain for more than 6 months not responding to medical therapy were treated by vertebroplasty. Cross sectional imaging of the spine with magnetic resonance was done. Blood investigations were done to exclude coagulopathy excluded. PVP was performed under local anesthesia. Results: The pain intensity numeric rating scale (PI-NRS-11) of these patients was in the range of 7-10 (Severe Pain). After vertebroplasty 8 patients were completely free of pain (PI NRS Score 0) while 6 were significantly relieved (PI-NRS Score 1-3). No complications were observed. Two patients with associated radicular pain had good pain relief following PVP. No recurrence was found during 36 months of postoperative followup. Conclusion: PVP is a safe and effective procedure in patients with painful vertebral hemangiomas refractory to medical management.
  1 2,332 163
CASE REPORTS
Corrective surgery for deformity of the upper cervical spine due to ankylosing spondylitis
Bin Lin, Bi Zhang, Zhu-mei Li, Qiu-sheng Li
March-April 2014, 48(2):211-215
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128771  PMID:24741145
Rotational and flexion deformity of C1-C2 due to ankylosing spondylitis is rare. We did surgical correction in one such case by lateral release, resection of the posterior arch of C1 and mobilization of the vertebral arteries, wedge osteotomy of the lateral masses of C1 and internal fixation under general anesthesia. There were no vascular and neurological complications during the surgery. After operation the atlantoaxial rotational deformity was corrected and the normal cervical lordosis was restored. At 1 year followup his visual field and feeding became normal and internal fixation was stable.
  - 2,101 79
Disseminated Fusarium oxysporum neurospinal infection
PE Sreedharan Namboothiri, Sreehari Narayanan Nair, Krishnan Vijayan, VK Visweswaran
March-April 2014, 48(2):220-222
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128773  PMID:24741147
We report a case of disseminated meningospondylodiscitis in an elderly diabetic patient caused by Fusarium oxysporum. As the clinical presentation was nonspecific, the diagnosis of the condition could only be arrived at after laboratory and imaging studies. The diagnosis of the condition requires a high index of suspicion. Patient underwent thorough surgical debridement along with a short course of variconazole and remained asymptomatic after 36 months of diagnosis. Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. It is known to cause local infections (nail, cornea) in healthy humans and disseminated infection only in the immunocompromised.
  - 1,467 86
EDITORIAL
Cultivate… research an attitude and learning a passion
Anil K Jain
March-April 2014, 48(2):125-126
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128736  PMID:24741131
  - 1,269 159
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Author's reply
Bhava RJ Satish, Atmakuri V Ranganadham, Karruppasamy Ramalingam, Sujit Kumar Tripathy
March-April 2014, 48(2):226-228
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128777  PMID:24741150
  - 1,079 68
Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fracture in elderly patients
Satya P Singh
March-April 2014, 48(2):229-229
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128779  PMID:24741151
  - 891 93
Author's reply
Bhava RJ Satish, Atmakuri V Ranganadham, Karuppasamy Ramalingam, Sujit Kumar Tripathy
March-April 2014, 48(2):229-231
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128780  PMID:24741152
  - 679 58
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Large blood vessel stretch in lumbar spine through anterior surgical approach: An experimental study in adult goat
Liehua Liu, Haoming Wang, Qiang Zhou, Deyu Guo, Yangjun Lan, Ling Liu
March-April 2014, 48(2):178-183
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128762  PMID:24741140
Background: Various anterior lumbar surgical approaches, including the minimally invasive approach, have greatly improved in recent years. Vascular complications resulting from ALIF are frequently reported. Little information is available about the safety of large blood vessel stretch. We evaluated the right side stretch limit (RSSL) of the abdominal aorta (AAA) and the inferior vena cava (IVC) without blood flow occlusion and investigated stretch-induced histological injury and thrombosis in the iliac and femoral arteries and veins and the stretched vessels. Materials and Methods: The RSSL of blood vessels in five adult goats was measured by counting the number of 0.5-cm-thick wood slabs that were inserted between the right lumbar edge and the stretch hook. Twenty seven adult goats were divided into three groups to investigate histological injury and thrombosis under a stretch to 0.5 cm (group I) 1.5 cm (group II) for 2 h, or no stretch (group III). Blood vessel samples from groups I and II were analyzed on postsurgical days 1, 3, and 7. Thrombogenesis was examined in the iliac and femoral arteries and veins. Results: The RSSL of large blood vessels in front of L4/5 was 1.5 cm from the right lumbar edge. All goats survived surgery without complications. No injury or thrombosis in the large blood vessels in front of the lumbar vertebrae and in the iliac or femoral arteries and veins was observed. Under light microscopy, group I showed slight swelling of endothelial cells in the AAA and no histological injury of the IVC. The AAA of group II showed endothelial cell damage, unclear organelles, and incomplete cell connections by electron microscopy. Conclusions: The AAA and IVC in a goat model can be stretched by ≤0.5 cm, with no thrombosis in the AAA, IVC, iliac or femoral arteries and veins.
  - 1,317 62
Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function
Federico Canavese, Alain Dimeglio, Davide Barbetta, Bruno Pereira, Sergio Fabbro, Federica Bassini, Bartolomeo Canavese
March-April 2014, 48(2):184-192
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128763  PMID:24741141
Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals' central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD) and width (CW), thoracic kyphosis (ThK) and sternal length (StL) were measured; thoracic index (ThI), expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits.
  - 1,842 62
Acromioclavicular joint acceleration-deceleration injury as a cause of persistent shoulder pain: Outcome after arthroscopic resection
Ehud Atoun, Artan-Athanasios Bano, Alexander Van Tongel, Ali Narvani, Giuseppe Sforza, Ofer Levy
March-April 2014, 48(2):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128764  PMID:24741142
Background: Shoulder pain in general and acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) pain specifically is common after acceleration-deceleration injury following road traffic accident (RTA). The outcome of surgical treatment in this condition is not described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to report the outcome of arthroscopic resection of the ACJ in these cases. Materials and Methods: Nine patients with localized ACJ pain, resistant to nonoperative treatment were referred on an average 18 months after the injury. There were 3 male and 6 females. The right shoulder was involved in seven patients and the left in two. The average age was 38.9 years (range 29-46 years). All presented with normal X-rays but with torn acromioclavicular joint disc and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Arthroscopic ACJ excision arthroplasty was performed in all patients. Results: At a mean followup of 18 month, all patients had marked improvement. The Constant score improved from 36 to 81, the pain score from 3/15 to 10/15 and the patient satisfaction improved from 3.5/10 to 9.3/10. Conclusion: Arthroscopic ACJ excision arthroplasty, gives good outcomes in patients not responding to conservative management in ACJ acceleration-deceleration injury.
  - 1,817 106
The effect of patient position during trauma surgery on fat embolism syndrome: An experimental study
Khalid A Syed, Michael Blankstein, Mohit Bhandari, Masaki Nakane, Radovan Zdero, Emil H Schemitsch
March-April 2014, 48(2):203-210
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128769  PMID:24741144
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of supine versus lateral position on clinical signs of fat embolism during orthopedic trauma surgery. Dogs served as the current study model, which could be extended and/or serve as a basis for future in vivo studies on humans. It was hypothesized that there would be an effect of position on clinical signs of fat embolism syndrome in a dog model. Materials and Methods: 12 dogs were assigned to supine ( n = 6) and lateral ( n = 6) position groups. Airway pressures, heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, arterial and venous blood gases, white blood count, platelet count and neutrophil count were obtained. Dogs were then subjected to pulmonary contusion in three areas of one lung. Fat embolism was generated by reaming one femur and tibia, followed by pressurization of the canal. Results: No difference was found in any parameters measured between supine and lateral positions at any time (0.126 > P < 0.856). Conclusions: The position of trauma patients undergoing reamed intramedullary nailing did not alter the presentation of the features of the lung secondary to fat embolism.
  - 2,054 174
Surgical treatment of thoracic disc herniations using a modified transfacet approach
Xizhong Yang, Xinyu Liu, Yanping Zheng,
March-April 2014, 48(2):158-162
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128756  PMID:24741137
Background: Ideal surgical treatment for thoracic disc herniation (TDH) is controversial due to variations in patient presentation, pathology, and possible surgical approach. Althougth discectomy may lead to improvements in neurologic function, it can be complicated by approach related morbidity. Various posterior surgical approaches have been developed to treate TDH, but the gold standard remains transthoracic decompression. Certain patients have comorbidities and herniation that are not optimally treated with an anterior approach. A transfacet pedicle approach was first described in 1995, but outcomes and complications have not been well described. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical effect and complications in a consecutive series of patients with symptomatic thoracic disc herniations undergoing thoracic discectomy using a modified transfacet approach. Materials and Methods: 33 patients with thoracic disc herniation were included in this study. Duration of the disease was from 12 days to 36 months, with less than 1 month in 13 patients. Of these, 15 patients were diagnosed with simple thoracic disc herniation, 6 were associated with ossified posterior longitudinal ligament, and 12 with ossified or hypertrophied yellow ligament. A total of 45 discs were involved. All the herniated discs and the ossified posterior longitudinal ligaments were excised using a modified transfacet approach. Laminectomy and replantation were performed for patients with ossified or hypertrophied yellow ligament. The screw-rod system was used on both sides in 14 patients and on one side in l9 patients. Results: 29 patients were followed up for an average of 37 months (range 12-63 months) and 4 patients were lost to followup. Evaluation was based on Epstein and Schwall criteria.5 15 were classified as excellent and 10 as good, accounting for 86.21% (25/29); 2 patients were classified as improved and 2 as poor. All the patients recovered neurologically after surgery. A total of 25 patients had significantly improved motor function from 3 to 6 months after surgery and 10 patients had slow recovery 6 months after surgery.. Of the three patients with postoperative complications, two had exacerbated preexisting defects and one had implant failure. Postoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging showed that all patients had well fused replanted lamina and completely decompressed canal. Conclusion: Thoracic discectomy using a modified transfacet approach can significantly improve the clinical outcomes.
  - 2,791 109
RETRACTION NOTICE
Retraction Notice

March-April 2014, 48(2):144-144
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128841  PMID:24741134
  - 855 119
TRIBUTE
A tribute: Dr. Mangalore Gopal Kini (1893-1952)
Jagannath Bantwal Kamath
March-April 2014, 48(2):232-232
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.128782  PMID:24741153
  - 807 77
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