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   2013| March-April  | Volume 47 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 16, 2013

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Functional outcome of Schatzker type V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with dual plates
G Thiruvengita Prasad, T Suresh Kumar, R Krishna Kumar, Ganapathy K Murthy, Nandkumar Sundaram
March-April 2013, 47(2):188-194
Background: Dual plate fixation in comminuted bicondylar tibial plateau fractures remains controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation, specifically through compromised soft tissues, has historically been associated with major wound complications. Alternate methods of treatment have been described, each with its own merits and demerits. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the functional outcome of lateral and medial plate fixation of Schatzker type V and VI fractures through an anterolateral approach, and a medial minimally invasive approach or a posteromedial approach. Materials and Methods: We treated 46 tibial plateau fractures Schatzker type V and VI with lateral and medial plates through an anterolateral approach and a medial minimal invasive approach over an 8 years period. Six patients were lost to followup. Radiographs in two planes were taken in all cases. Immediate postoperative radiographs were assessed for quality of reduction and fixation. The functional outcome was evaluated according to the Oxford Knee Score criteria on followup. Results: Forty patients (33 men and 7 women) who completed the followup were included in the study. There were 20 Schatzker type V fractures and 20 Schatzker type VI fractures. The mean duration of followup was 4 years (range 1-8 years). All patients had a satisfactory articular reduction defined as ≤2 mm step-off or gap as assessed on followup. All patients had a good coronal and sagittal plane alignment, and articular width as assessed on supine X-rays of the knee in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. The functional outcome, as assessed by the Oxford Knee Score, was excellent in 30 patients and good in 10 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity and employment. There were no instances of deep infection. Conclusions: Dual plate fixation of severe bicondylar tibial plateau fractures is an excellent treatment option as it provides rigid fixation and allows early knee mobilization. Careful soft tissue handling and employing minimal invasive techniques minimizes soft tissue complications.
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Outcome of locking compression plates in humeral shaft nonunions
Malhar N Kumar, V Pratap Ravindranath, MR Ravishankar
March-April 2013, 47(2):150-155
Background: Nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus are frequently seen in clinical practice (incidence of up to 15% in certain studies) and osteosynthesis using dynamic compression plates, intra medullary nails and Ilizarov fixators have been reported previously. Locking compression plates (LCP) are useful in the presence of disuse osteoporosis, segmental bone loss and cortical defects that preclude strong fixation. We report a prospective followup study of the outcome of the use of LCP for humeral nonunion following failed internal fixation in which implants other than LCP had been used. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients with nonunion of humeral shaft fractures following failed internal fixation were included in the study. The mean followup period was 3.4 years (range: 2.4 to 5.7 years) and the minimum followup period was 2 years. Mean age of the patients was 41.04 years (range: 24 to 57 years). All 24 patients underwent osteosynthesis using LCP and autologous bone grafting (cortico-cancellous iliac crest graft combined with or without fibular strut graft). Main outcome measurements included radiographic assessment of fracture union and pre and postoperative functional evaluation using the modified Constant and Murley scoring system. Results: 23 out of 24 fractures united following osteosynthesis. Average time to union was 16 weeks (range: 10 to 28 weeks). Complications included delayed union ( n = 2), transient radial nerve palsy ( n = 2) and persistent nonunion ( n = 1). Functional evaluation using the Constant and Murley score showed excellent results in 11, good in 10, fair in two and poor outcome in one patient. Conclusions: Locking compression plating and cancellous bone grafting is a reliable option for achieving union in humeral diaphyseal nonunion with failed previous internal fixation and results in good functional outcome in patients with higher physiological demands.
  9 5,353 385
A comparison of 3D scapular kinematics between dominant and nondominant shoulders during multiplanar arm motion
Sang Ki Lee, Dae Suk Yang, Ha Yong Kim, Won Sik Choy
March-April 2013, 47(2):135-142
Background: Generally, the scapular motions of pathologic and contralateral normal shoulders are compared to characterize shoulder disorders. However, the symmetry of scapular motion of normal shoulders remains undetermined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare 3dimensinal (3D) scapular motion between dominant and nondominant shoulders during three different planes of arm motion by using an optical tracking system. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy subjects completed five repetitions of elevation and lowering in sagittal plane flexion, scapular plane abduction, and coronal plane abduction. The 3D scapular motion was measured using an optical tracking system, after minimizing reflective marker skin slippage using ultrasonography. The dynamic 3D motion of the scapula of dominant and nondominant shoulders, and the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) were analyzed at each 10° increment during the three planes of arm motion. Results: There was no significant difference in upward rotation or internal rotation ( P > 0.05) of the scapula between dominant and nondominant shoulders during the three planes of arm motion. However, there was a significant difference in posterior tilting ( P = 0.018) during coronal plane abduction. The SHR was a large positive or negative number in the initial phase of sagittal plane flexion and scapular plane abduction. However, the SHR was a small positive or negative number in the initial phase of coronal plane abduction. Conclusions: Only posterior tilting of the scapula during coronal plane abduction was asymmetrical in our healthy subjects, and depending on the plane of arm motion, the pattern of the SHR differed as well. These differences should be considered in the clinical assessment of shoulder pathology.
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Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients
Bhava RJ Satish, Atmakuri V Ranganadham, Karruppasamy Ramalingam, Sujit Kumar Tripathy
March-April 2013, 47(2):174-181
Background: The treatment options for displaced femoral neck fracture in elderly are screw fixation, hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty based primarily on age of the patient. The issues in screw fixation are ideal patient selection, optimal number of screws, optimal screw configuration and positioning inside the head and neck of femur. The problems of screw fixation may be loss of fixation, joint penetration, avascular necrosis of femoral head, nonunion, prolonged rehabilitation period and the need for second surgery in failed cases. We hereby present results of a modified screw fixation technique in femoral neck fractures in patients ≥50 years of age. Materials and Methods: Patients ≥50 years of age (range 50-73 years) who sustained displaced femoral neck fracture and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. They were treated with closed reduction under image intensifier control and cannulated cancellous screw fixation. Accurate anatomical reduction was not aimed and a cross sectional contact area of >75% without varus was accepted as good reduction. Four screws were positioned in four quadrants of femoral head and neck, as parallel and as peripheral as possible. Radiological and functional results were evaluated periodically. Sixty four patients who could complete a minimum followup of two years were analyzed. Results: Radiologically, all fractures healed after mean duration of 10 weeks (range 8-12 weeks). There was no avascular necrosis. Nonanatomical healing was observed in 45 cases (70%). All patients except one had excellent functional outcome and could do cross-legged sitting and squatting. Chondrolysis with progressive head resorption was seen in one case, which was converted to total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion: Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP) screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ≥50 years of age.
  6 5,587 398
Open reduction and locking plate fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures
Chandan Kumar, Anil Kumar Gupta, Rohit Nath, Javed Ahmad
March-April 2013, 47(2):156-160
Background: Treatment of proximal humerus fractures is controversial and various operative modalities have been tried in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate functional outcome and complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures by proximal humerus locking plate. Materials and Methods: 52 patients with displaced proximal humerus fractures treated with proximal humerus locking plate between May 2008 and October 2010 were included in the study. Fractures were classified according to Neer's classification into displaced 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures. Patients were followed for a minimum period of 1 year. 11 patients had less than 1 year of followup and were not considered in the evaluation of final results. Forty one patients were considered for final evaluation. Functional evaluation was done according to the Constant-Murley scoring system. Constant score was compared between 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures at final up and also between young (≤60 yrs) and old (>60 yrs). Results: 11 patients had 2-part fractures, 22 patients had 3-part fractures, and 19 patients had 4-part fractures. The mean followup period was 15.21 ± 2.59 months. 65.8% (n = 27) patients had good to excellent result, 19.5% (n = 8) had fair, and 14.7% ( n = 6) had poor result. Constant scores for 2-part (79.83 ± 6.95) and 3-part fractures (74.22 ± 12.53) were significantly superior to those of 4-part fractures (61.09 ± 14.29) (P value = 0.002 and 0.018, respectively). Difference between 2-part and 3-part fractures was not significant (P value = 0.623). There was no significant difference between younger (≤60) and older patients (>60). Complications encountered in this series were varus malreduction in 17% ( n = 7), screw perforation in 10% ( n = 4), plate impingement in 12% ( n = 5), infection in 2% ( n = 1), and nonunion in 2% ( n = 1) of cases. Conclusion: Proximal humerus locking plate gives reliable fixation for 2-part and 3-part fractures. Its use in more complicated fracture patterns of 4-part fractures is associated with poor clinical outcome.
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Comparative study of extended versus short term thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective total hip and knee arthroplasty in Indian population
Velu Nair, Ratheesh Kumar, Bikram Kumar Singh, Ajay Sharma, Gururaj R Joshi, Kamal Pathak
March-April 2013, 47(2):161-167
Background: Postoperative thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for an extended period of 4 weeks is now preferred over short term thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip/knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). However, most of the data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of extended thromboprophylaxis and short term thromboprophylaxis is from clinical trials done in the West. In India, the data of the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following THA/TKA has been conflicting and the duration has not been clearly defined. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of extended thromboprophylaxis over short term thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients undergoing elective THA/TKA surgeries. Materials and Methods : A prospective arm of 197 consecutive patients undergoing elective THA/TKA surgeries who were administered extended thromboprophylaxis for 4 weeks was compared with a historical group of 795 patients who were administered short term thromboprophylaxis for only 7-11 days. In both groups, LMWH (enoxaparin) was used in a dose of 40 mg subcutaneously, in addition to mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Primary efficacy endpoint was objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE). The presence of DVT was confirmed by a combination of pretest scoring, D-dimer, and Color Doppler Flow Imaging (CDFI) of deep veins of the legs, and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was confirmed by ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scan or pulmonary angiography. Fisher's exact test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. The baseline confounding factors were compared between the two groups using t test for comparing the means for continuous data and Fisher's exact test for categorical data. Results: In the prospective arm, only 1 patient developed symptomatic PTE compared to 26 (3.27%) cases of VTE (20 cases of PTE and 6 cases of DVT) in the retrospective group. Conclusion: Extended thromboprophylaxis (for 4 weeks) was found to be more effective than short term thromboprophylaxis in minimizing the risk of postoperative VTE in patients who underwent THA/TKA.
  3 1,848 182
Thromboprophylaxis in routine arthroscopy of knee
Jihad Abouali, Forough Farrokhyar, Devin Peterson, Rick Ogilvie, Olufemi Ayeni
March-April 2013, 47(2):168-173
Background: Thromboprophylaxis in arthroscopy is controversial. Recent literature has shown variable rates of deep vein thrombosis following routine arthroscopic knee surgery; however, it is unknown if current practice reflects the literature. We have conducted a cross sectional survey to provide insight into the practice patterns perceived risks, benefits and barrier in the use of thromboprophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A 19 item survey was created regarding surgeons' use of thromboprophylaxis in their patients undergoing routine knee arthroscopy. E-mail surveys were sent out to members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association. Results: Seventy-seven responses were obtained; of which 58.2% (n=45) of surgeons stated that they had a clinical interest in sports medicine, and 37.3% (n=29) had completed a fellowship in sports medicine or arthroscopy. Fifty five surgeons (71.6%) performed more than 40 arthroscopies per year. Prolonged surgical time was the only risk factor that would significantly increase their use of prophylaxis. Practice patterns surrounding the use of thromboprophylaxis were otherwise quite variable. Conclusions: Our survey reveals that opinions and practice patterns surrounding the use of thromboprophylaxis following routine knee arthroscopy are diverse. This survey points out the need for larger well designed studies for concise guidelines.
  3 1,466 107
A retrospective analysis of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy for varus osteoarthritic knee
Raju Vaishya
March-April 2013, 47(2):215-215
  2 1,134 121
Role of autologous chondrocyte transplantation in articular cartilage defects: An experimental study
Amit Rastogi, Pradeep Srivastava, Zafer Iqbal, Vinay Kumaraswamy, Ravindra Pratap Singh
March-April 2013, 47(2):129-134
Introduction: Injuries of articular cartilage (AC) have very limited potential to heal, because they are avascular and this may subsequently lead to secondary arthrosis. Autologous cultured chondrocytes transplantation is can be used to create hyaline or hyaline-like repair in a cartilage defect area. The purpose of this study was to repair artificially created full-thickness AC defects in 20 rabbit knee joints with autologous cultured chondrocytes. Materials and Methods: An AC defect of 3 mm was created on the lateral condyle of both tibiae. The defect was filled with autologous chondrocytes cultured in vitro and fixed with fibrin, at a later stage on the left side. The right knee acted as a control. The rabbits were sacrificed after 3, 6, and 12 weeks of transplantation and the reparative tissues were analyzed macroscopically and histologically. Results: Histological scores of the cultured autologous chondrocyte transplanted knees were significantly better than the control knees at 3, 6, and 12 weeks following the transplantation. Integration of repaired tissue with adjacent cartilage, hyaline characteristics of repaired tissue, maturity of cartilage, and cellularity increases with duration and is significant in chondrocytes-transplanted defects compared to control. The histological scores also become better with increasing duration of followup. Conclusion: Transplantation of autologous chondrocytes cultured in vitro and fixed with fibrin is effective in repairing AC defects.
  2 5,297 253
Tru-cut biopsy as the initial method of tissue diagnosis in bone tumors with soft tissue extension
Amit Joshi, Sushil Rana Magar, Pankaj Chand, Rajesh Panth, Bachchu Ram Khatri Chhetri
March-April 2013, 47(2):195-199
Background: Tru-cut biopsy in suspected bone tumors can be performed even in less specialized centers. Tru-cut biopsy has been proved as safe with more than 90% accuracy. However, its usefulness was not widely studied in general hospitals where Tru-cut biopsy is performed by orthopedic surgeons. This study was conducted to find out the accuracy and adequacy of Tru-cut biopsy performed by an orthopedic surgeon not trained in musculoskeletal oncology, in a general hospital. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted through a prospectively collected database using a uniform protocol. All patients who had a malignant appearing bone lesion with a palpable soft tissue mass were included in the current study. Fifty such consecutive cases underwent Tru-Cut biopsy by orthopedic residents or registrars who were aware of the principles of Tru-cut biopsy and the recommendations of Musculoskeletal Tumor Society. When an open biopsy or a resection of the tumor was subsequently performed, the histological diagnosis was compared for accuracy with the diagnosis of needle biopsy. We evaluated adequacy of sample obtained and accuracy of diagnosis in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Results: Seventy seven cases were initially enrolled. Out of which 18 were excluded and 59 patients were biopsied. Out of which 50 were analysed. Only 4 out of 50 biopsied specimens were inadequate resulting in an adequacy rate of 92%. Among 46 cases, which were analyzed for diagnostic accuracy, 84.78% had true-positive result, 8.69% had true negative, and 6.52% had false-negative report. The sensitivity and specificity of Tru-cut biopsy in our series was 92.85% and 100%, respectively, with positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 57.14%. Conclusions: Tru-cut biopsy can be recommended as an initial method of tissue diagnosis in musculoskeletal tumors with soft tissue extension.
  2 4,055 339
Desmoplastic fibroma of ulna: Excision and reconstruction of olecranon with a fibular graft
Tarun Goyal, Shishir Rastogi, Sujit K Tripathy
March-April 2013, 47(2):207-210
Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare, well differentiated, locally aggressive fibrous tumor usually arising from soft tissues, and rarely from bones. Involvement of forearm bones is extremely unusual. We present a large desmoplastic fibroma of right ulna in a 15-year-old male. The tumor was excised with a wide margin, and the bony defect was reconstructed with nonvascular autologous fibular graft. Reconstruction of the olecranon process was attempted using the fibular head and the remaining olecranon. At 2-years followup, there was no recurrence, flexion extension arc of the elbow joint was 40°-130° and there was no restriction of activities of daily living.
  1 2,013 93
Ulnar buttress arthroplasty after enbloc resection of a giant cell tumor of the distal ulna
Monappa A Naik, Premjit Sujir, Sharath K Rao, Sujit K Tripathy
March-April 2013, 47(2):211-214
Enbloc resection with or without ulnar stump stabilization is the recommended treatment for giant cell tumors (GCT) of the distal ulna. A few sporadic reports are available where authors have described various procedures to prevent ulnar stump instability and ulnar translation of carpal bones. We report a GCT of the distal ulna in a 43-year-old male which was resected enbloc. The distal radioulnar joint was reconstructed by fixing an iliac crest graft to the distal end of the radius (ulnar buttress arthroplasty) and the ulnar stump was stabilized with extensor carpi ulnaris tenodesis. After a followup at three years, there was no evidence of tumor recurrence or graft resorption; the patient had a normal range of movement of the wrist joint and the functional outcome was excellent as per the score of Ferracini et al.
  1 2,318 120
Venous thromboembolism in major lower limb orthopedic surgery
Sudhir Kumar
March-April 2013, 47(2):115-116
  1 2,762 321
Outcome of one-stage treatment of developmental dysplasia of hip in older children
Aditya Krishna Mootha, Raghav Saini
March-April 2013, 47(2):217-217
  1 1,099 77
Current concepts and controversies on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Part I
Alok Sud, Athanasios I Tsirikos
March-April 2013, 47(2):117-128
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity encountered by General Orthopaedic Surgeons. Etiology remains unclear and current research focuses on genetic factors that may influence scoliosis development and risk of progression. Delayed diagnosis can result in severe deformities which affect the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as the rib cage, waistline symmetry, and shoulder balance. Patient's dissatisfaction in terms of physical appearance and mechanical back pain, as well as the risk for curve deterioration are usually the reasons for treatment. Conservative management involves mainly bracing with the aim to stop or slow down scoliosis progression during growth and if possible prevent the need for surgical treatment. This is mainly indicated in young compliant patients with a large amount of remaining growth and progressive curvatures. Scoliosis correction is indicated for severe or progressive curves which produce significant cosmetic deformity, muscular pain, and patient discontent. Posterior spinal arthrodesis with Harrington instrumentation and bone grafting was the first attempt to correct the coronal deformity and replace in situ fusion. This was associated with high pseudarthrosis rates, need for postoperative immobilization, and flattening of sagittal spinal contour. Segmental correction techniques were introduced along with the Luque rods, Harri-Luque, and Wisconsin systems. Correction in both coronal and sagittal planes was not satisfactory and high rates of nonunion persisted until Cotrel and Dubousset introduced the concept of global spinal derotation. Development of pedicle screws provided a powerful tool to correct three-dimensional vertebral deformity and opened a new era in the treatment of scoliosis.
  1 13,977 379
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis
Satyadev Vadapalli
March-April 2013, 47(2):200-203
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder affecting the biosynthetic pathway of bile acids, leading to increased cholestanol formation and its accumulation in various tissues. Patients can present with tendon xanthomas, gait abnormalities, osteoporosis with or without a pathological fracture, diminished vision, intractable diarrhoea, seizures, ataxia, psychosis, and mental retardation. We report a 20-year-old man who presented with multiple recurrent tendon swellings and seizures. The earlier diagnosis and treatment helps in preventing the devastating neurological sequalae of this sinister condition. Treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid is crucial in preventing the progression of this rare disorder.
  - 2,083 104
Unusual presentation of a radial neck fracture in a child
Murali Poduval, R Kanagasabai, Vineeth Thomas Abraham, Chandrasekharan Marimuthu
March-April 2013, 47(2):204-206
Fracture of the radial neck are uncommon injuries. In children, they may present as radial neck fractures, a components of forearm fracture dislocations, or as isolated fracture dislocations. Here, we present an unusual and previously undescribed variant of radial neck fracture with dislocation of the radial head to the medial side and ulnar nerve injury. The fracture dislocation was openly reduced and fixed with a small fragment plate. The fracture healed with some loss of rotational movements. At short followup of 6 months patient had useful elbow function but ulnar nerve did not recover.
  - 1,535 140
Author reply
Basant Kumar Bhuyan
March-April 2013, 47(2):217-218
  - 1,028 43
Author's reply
Chaturong Pornrattanamaneewong, Surin Numkanisorn, Keerati Chareancholvanich, Thossart Harnroongroj
March-April 2013, 47(2):215-216
  - 594 40
Autologous bone plugs in unilateral total knee arthroplasty
Nicole M Protzman, Nicholas J Buck, Carl B Weiss
March-April 2013, 47(2):182-187
Background: The purpose of this study was to compare blood loss, declines in hemoglobin (HgB) and hematocrit (HcT) levels, and required homologous transfusions for patients who either had the femoral intramedullary defect left open or filled with an autologous bone plug during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hereby present our results of autologous bone plugs in unilateral TKA. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 55 patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) who had undergone unilateral TKA. Twenty six patients had the femoral defect filled with an autologous bone plug and 29 did not. Lateral releases and patella replacements were not performed. Drained blood was reinfused when appropriate. Results: Mean blood loss and mean blood reinfused were similar for the plugged (loss: 960.8 ± 417.3 ml; reinfused: 466.7 ± 435.9 mL) and unplugged groups (loss: 1065.9 ± 633.5 ml, P = 0.38; reinfused: 528.4 ± 464.8 ml, P = 0.61). Preoperative HgB (14.3 ± 1.4 g/dL, P = 0.93) and HcT levels (42.2 ± 4.6%, P = 0.85) were similar across plug conditions. HgB and HcT levels declined similarly for the plugged (2.7 ± 1.2 g/dl and 7.9 ± 4.0%) and unplugged groups (3.0 ± 0.9 g/dl, P = 0.16 and 9.0 ± 2.6%, P = 0.16), respectively. Of patients, one in the plugged group and none in the unplugged group required homologous transfusions ( P = 0.5). Conclusion: The autologous bone plug does not appear to reduce the need for homologous blood transfusions following unilateral TKA.
  - 1,379 70
Arthroscopic management of recalcitrant stiffness following rotator cuff repair: A retrospective analysis
Sanjeev Bhatia, Richard C Mather, Andrew R Hsu, Amon T Ferry, Anthony A Romeo, Gregory P Nicholson, Brian J Cole, Nikhil N Verma
March-April 2013, 47(2):143-149
Background : Rotator cuff repair surgery is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the world but limited literature exists for guidance of optimal management of post-operative arthrofibrosis following cuff repair. The purpose of this study is to report the results of arthroscopic capsular release, lysis of adhesions, manipulation under anesthesia, and aggressive physical therapy in patients with recalcitrant postoperative stiffness after rotator cuff repair. Materials and Methods : Twenty-nine patients who had recalcitrant arthrofibrosis following either an arthroscopic (62%), open (28%), or mini-open (10%) rotator cuff repair were included in study. The average age at the time of index cuff repair surgery was 49.8 years (range 24−70 years). Sixteen patients (55%) were involved in worker's compensation claims. The mean time from the date of index operation to lysis of adhesions was 9.7 months (range 4.2−36.2 months), and the mean time from lysis of adhesion to most recent follow-up 18.2 months (range 4.1−43.7 months). Post-operative evaluation was performed using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Score (ASES), Visual Analog Score (VAS), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) on 18 (62%), while range of motion (ROM), dynamometer strength testing, and Constant-Murley Scoring were performed on 13 (45%). Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test. Results : Prior to arthroscopic lysis of adhesions, mean forward active elevation (FE) was 103.8°, (range 60-145° (SD 26.3) and external rotation at the side (ERS) was 25.3°, (range 5-70° SD 15.1°). Post-operatively, at the most recent follow-up, FE was significantly improved to 158.3°, (range 110−180° SD 22.3°), and ERS improved to 58.9°, (range 15−90° SD 18.6°) in both cases. Involvement in a worker's compensation claim resulted in a lower ASES, VAS, and SANE score, but there was no statistically significant difference in motion. Conclusion : Arthroscopic capsular release, lysis of adhesions, and manipulation under anesthesia is a safe, reliable method of treating persistent stiffness following rotator cuff repair.
  - 3,903 89
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