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   2012| May-June  | Volume 46 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 18, 2012

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Tumor like swellings arising from Hoffa's fat pad: A report of three patients
Sushant D Ghate, Bhupal N Deokar, Ashwin V Samant, Satish P Kale
May-June 2012, 46(3):364-368
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96368  PMID:22719128
We report three rare cases of tumor-like conditions arising from Hoffa's fat pad (HFP). Patients were having persistent knee pain, the cause of which was not diagnosed by the general physician, and then were referred to us for knee pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the lesions to be arising from HFP (ganglion cysts and hemangioma), as was suggested by clinical findings. Anatomy, pathology, and radiological features of the Hoffa's disease are described here to increase awareness in orthopedic community of this rare but interesting disease which is often misdiagnosed as meniscal pathology. These cases illustrate that increased cognizance can facilitate timely intervention which will prevent morbidity of the patient.
  11,994 167 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Patellar nonunions: Comparison of various surgical methods of treatment
Parag Garg, Sisir Sahoo, Kumar Satyakam, Dibendu Biswas, Anant Garg, Subhashish Mitra
May-June 2012, 46(3):304-311
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96391  PMID:22719117
Background: Nonunion of patella is an uncommon entity prevalent more commonly in developing countries. Many of them have a functional knee joint and only those with a wide gap and failed extensor mechanism need surgery. We report an analysis of nonunion of fracture patella treated by 3 surgical method. Materials and Methods : 35 patients of nonunion/delayed union of patella with significant gap and failure of quadriceps mechanism, underwent three different methods surgically: 1) V-Y plasty and tension band wiring (n=10); 2) patellar traction followed by tension band wiring without V-Y plasty (n=15); and 3) patellar traction followed by partial or total patellectomy (n=10). We compared the results of the treatment in terms of Knee Society Score (KSS), Melbourne patella score, time of union, pain, range of movement, quadriceps power, and ability to do daily activities and complications encountered. Results: The 15 cases of patellar traction followed by tension band wiring showed the best results in terms of time to return to normal activities and complications encountered. Cases with patellectomy showed the next best results but they had a longer period of rehabilitation with ultimately lesser patient satisfaction. V-Y plasty gave the worst results both in complication rate and function return. Conclusion : Preoperative patellar traction followed by tension band wiring is a good procedure giving better results than either patellectomy or V-Y plasty.
  9,641 1,185 1
Total hip arthroplasty for failed aseptic Austin Moore prosthesis
Pradeep Bhosale, Ashish Suryawanshi, Amber Mittal
May-June 2012, 46(3):297-303
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96387  PMID:22719116
Background: Though Austin Moore (AM) replacement prosthesis has fairly good short term results for intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly, it still is a compromised option and has a high failure rate in the long run. The objective of the present retrospective study is to analyze the functional outcome, assess survivorship of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) at mid to long term followup, and evaluate intraoperative difficulties faced during conversion of failed aseptic AM prosthesis to cemented THA. Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine cemented THA surgeries for failed AM prosthesis were performed between 1986 and 2005. AM failures were classified into seven groups on the basis of mode of failure. Infected failures were excluded from the study. There were 35 men and 54 women in the study group. The mean age was 68 years (range 57-91 years). Mean followup was 8 years (range 5-13 years). Results: Average Harris Hip Score improved from 65 preoperatively (range 42-73) to 87 (range 76-90) at 1 year postoperatively and to 86 (range 75-89) at the last followup. The overall complication rate was 4.5%. Conclusion: Conversion THA is an excellent treatment strategy for symptomatic failed AM hemiarthroplasty in terms of pain relief and restoration of function and mobility as near as possible to the preinjury level. Also, hemiarthroplasty should not be used in physically active patients, even in elderly individuals. Careful patient selection for hemiarthroplasty versus THA is vital and may decrease the incidence of complications and ameliorate the outcomes in the treatment of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.
  6,380 255 2
Results of vertical figure-of-eight tension band suture for finger nail disruptions with fractures of distal phalanx
Fayaz W Memon
May-June 2012, 46(3):346-350
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96377  PMID:22719124
Background: Fingertip injuries involve varying degree of fractures of the distal phalanx and nail bed or nail plate disruptions. The treatment modalities recommended for these injuries include fracture fixation with K-wire and meticulous repair of nail bed after nail removal and later repositioning of nail or stent substitute into the nail fold by various methods. This study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome of vertical figure-of-eight tension band suture for finger nail disruptions with fractures of distal phalanx. Materials and Methods: A series of 40 patients aged between 4 and 58 years, with 43 fingernail disruptions and fracture of distal phalanges, were treated with vertical figure-of-eight tension band sutures without formal fixation of fracture fragments and the results were reviewed. In this method, the injuries were treated by thoroughly cleaning the wound, reducing the fracture fragments, anatomical replacement of nail plate, and securing it by vertical figure-of-eight tension band suture. Results: All patients were followed up for a minimum of 3 months. The clinical evaluation of the patients was based on radiological fracture union and painless pinch to determine fingertip stability. Every single fracture united and every fingertip was clinically stable at the time of final followup. We also evaluated our results based on visual analogue scale for pain and range of motion of distal interphalangeal joint. Two sutures had to be revised due to over tensioning and subsequent vascular compromise within minutes of repair; however, this did not affect the final outcome. Conclusion: This technique is simple, secure, and easily reproducible. It neither requires formal repair of injured nail bed structures nor fixation of distal phalangeal fracture and results in uncomplicated reformation of nail plate and uneventful healing of distal phalangeal fractures.
  6,396 135 -
Comparison of cutout resistance of dynamic condylar screw and proximal femoral nail in reverse oblique trochanteric fractures: A biomechanical study
Gursimrat Singh Cheema, Amit Rastogi, Vakil Singh, Satish Chandra Goel, Diwakar Mishra, Sumit Arora
May-June 2012, 46(3):259-265
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96369  PMID:22719110
Background: Reverse oblique trochanteric fracture of femur is a distinct fracture pattern. 95° Dynamic condylar screw (DCS) and proximal femoral nail (PFN) are currently the most commonly used implants for its fixation. This study aims to biomechanically compare the cutout resistance as well as modes of failure of DCS and PFN in reverse oblique trochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixteen freshly harvested cadaveric proximal femoral specimens were randomly assigned to three mean bone mineral density matched groups, eight of which were implanted with 95° DCS and the other eight with PFN. The constructs were made unstable to resemble a reverse oblique trochanteric fracture by removing a standard size posteromedial wedge. These constructs were subjected to computer controlled cyclic compressive loading with 200 kg at a frequency of 1 cycle/second (1 Hz) and end points of both the groups were analyzed. Results: The bending moment of the PFN group was approximately 50% less than that of the DCS group (P<0.0001). The PFN group resisted more number of cycles than the DCS group (P=0.03) and showed lesser number of component failures as compared with the DCS group (P=0.003). Conclusions: The PFN is biomechanically superior to DCS for the fixation of reverse oblique trochanteric fractures of femur.
  5,371 470 1
MRI and ultrasonography in Morton's neuroma: Diagnostic accuracy and correlation
R Torres-Claramunt, A Ginés, G Pidemunt, Ll Puig, S de Zabala
May-June 2012, 46(3):321-325
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96390  PMID:22719120
Background: The diagnosis of Morton's neuroma is based primarily on clinical findings. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) studies are considered complementary diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to establish the correlation and sensitivity of both techniques used to diagnose Morton's neuroma. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven patients (43 intermetatarsal spaces) with Morton's neuroma operated were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases MRI or ultrasound was performed to complement clinical diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. In all cases, a histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Estimates of sensitivity were made and correlation (kappa statistics) was assessed for both techniques. Results: Twenty seven women and 10 men participated with a mean age of 60 years. Double lesions presented in six patients. The second intermetatarsal space was affected in 10 patients and the third in 33 patients. An MRI was performed in 41 cases and a US in 23 cases. In 21 patients, both an MRI and a US were performed. With regard to the 41 MRIs performed, 34 were positive for Morton's neuroma and 7 were negative. MRI sensitivity was 82.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.679-0.929]. Thirteen out of 23 US performed were positive and 10 US were negative. US sensitivity was 56.5% (95% CI: 0.345-0.768). Relative to the 21 patients on whom both techniques were carried out, the agreement between both techniques was poor (kappa statistics 0.31). Conclusion: Although ancillary studies may be required to confirm the clinical diagnosis in some cases, they are probably not necessary for the diagnosis of Morton's neuroma. MRI had a higher sensitivity than US and should be considered the technique of choice in those cases. However, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis (false negative 17%).
  5,154 92 9
CASE REPORTS
Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion
Saumyajit Basu, Rathinavelu Sreeramalingam
May-June 2012, 46(3):360-363
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96367  PMID:22719127
Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7) followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin) were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup.
  4,804 80 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Outcome of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis
BS Narayana Gowda, J Mohan Kumar
May-June 2012, 46(3):317-320
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96392  PMID:22719119
Background: Ankle arthrodesis is still a gold standard salvage procedure for the management of ankle arthritis. There are several functional and mechanical benefits of ankle arthrodesis, which make it a viable surgical procedure in the management of ankle arthritis. The functional outcomes following ankle arthrodesis are not very well known. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical and radiographic evaluation of ankle arthrodesis in posttraumatic arthritis performed using Charnley's compression device. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2009 a functional assessment of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) who had undergone ankle arthrodesis for posttraumatic arthritis and/or avascular necrosis (AVN) talus (n=6), malunited bimalleolar fracture (n=4), distal tibial plafond fractures (n=3), medial malleoli nonunion (n=2). All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically after an average followup of 2 years 8 months (range 1-5.7 years). Results: All patients had sound ankylosis and no complications related to the surgery. Scoring the patients with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale, we found that 11 of the 15 had excellent results, two had good, and two showed fair results. They were all returned to their preinjury activities. Conclusion: We conclude that, the ankle arthrodesis can still be considered as a standard procedure in ankle arthritis. On the basis of these results, patients should be counseled that an ankle fusion will help to relieve pain and to improve overall function. Still, one should keep in mind that it is a salvage procedure that will cause persistent alterations in gait with a potential for deterioration due to the development of subtalar arthritis.
  4,211 191 2
Trans-iliosacral plating for vertically unstable fractures of sacral spine associated with spinopelvic dissociation: A cadaveric study
Pravin Padalkar, Barry P Pereira, Ambadas Kathare, Khong Kok Sun, Fareed Kagda, Thambiah Joseph
May-June 2012, 46(3):274-278
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96376  PMID:22719112
Background: The treatment algorithm for sacral fracture associated with vertical shear pelvic fracture has not emerged. Our aim was to study a new approach of fixation for comminuted and vertically unstable fracture pattern with spinopelvic dissociation to overcome inconsistent outcome and avoid complications associated with fixations. We propose fixation with well-contoured thick reconstruction plate spreading across sacrum from one iliac bone to another with fixation points in iliac wing, sacral ala and sacral pedicle on either side. Present biomechanical study tests the four fixation pattern to compare their stiffness to vertical compressive forces. Materials and Methods: Dissection was performed on human cadavers through posterior midline paraspinal approach elevating erector spinae from insertion with two flaps. Feasibility of surgical exposure and placement of contoured plate for fixation was evaluated. Ten age and sex matched computed tomography scans of pelvis with both hips were obtained. Reconstructions were performed with advantage windows 4.2 (GE Light Speed QX/I, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA). Using the annotation tools, direct digital CT measurement (0.6 mm increments) of three linear parameters was carried out. Readings were recorded at S2 sacral level. Pelvic CT scans were extensively studied for entry point, trajectory and estimated length for screw placement in S2 pedicle, sacral ala and iliac wing. Readings were recorded for desired angulation of screw in iliac wing ala of sacrum and sacral pedicle with respect to midline. The readings were analyzed by the values of mean and standard deviation. Biomechanical efficacy of fixation methods was studied separately on synthetic bone. Four fixation patterns given below were tested to compare their stiffness to vertical compressive forces: 1) Single S1 iliosacral screw (7.5 mm cancellous screw), 2) Two S1 and S2 iliosacral screws, 3) Isolated trans-iliosacral plate, 4) Trans-iliosacral plate + single S1 iliosacral screw. Statistical Analysis: Mean of desired angulation for inserting screws and percentage of displacement on biomechanical testing was evaluated. Results: Mean angulations for inserting sacral pedicel were 12.3΀ (SD 2.7΀) convergent to midline and divergent of 14΀ (SD 2.3΀) for sacral ala screw and 23΀ (SD 4.9΀) for iliac wing screw. All screws needed to be inserted at an angle of 90΀ to sacral dorsum to avoid violation of root canals. Cross headed displacement across fracture site was measured and plotted against the applied vertical shear load of 300 N in five cycles each for all the four configurations. Also, the force required for cross headed displacement of 2.5 mm and 5 mm was recorded for all configurations. Transmitted load across both ischial tuberosities was measured to resolve unequal distribution of forces. Taking one screw construct (configuration 1) as standard base reference, trans-iliosacral plate construct (configuration 3) showed equal rigidity to standard reference. Two screw construct (configuration 2) was 12% stronger and trans-iliosacral plate (configuration 4) with screw was 9% stronger at 2.5 mm displacing on 300 N force, while it showed 30% and 6%, respectively, at 5 mm cross-headed displacement. Conclusions: Trans-iliosacral plating is feasible anatomically, biomechanically and radiologically for sacral fractures associated with vertical shear pelvic fractures. Low profile of plate reduces the risk of hardware prominence and decreases the need for implant removal. Also, the fixation pattern of plate allows to spare mobile lumbosacral junction which is an important segment for spinal mobility. Biomechanical studies revealed that rigidity offered by plate for cross headed displacement across fracture site is equal to sacroiliac screws and further rigidity of construct can be increased with addition of one more screw. There is need for precountered thicker plate in future.
  3,969 115 1
Limb lengthening over plate
Ruta Kulkarni, Nishant Singh, Govind S Kulkarni, Milind Kulkarni, Sunil Kulkarni, Vidisha Kulkarni
May-June 2012, 46(3):339-345
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96378  PMID:22719123
Background: The limb lengthening over plate eliminates the associated risk of infection with limb lengthening over intramedullary nail. We present our experience of limb lengthening in 15 patients with a plate fixed on the proximal segment, followed by corticotomy and application of external fixator. Materials and Methods: 15 patients (7 females, 8 males) were included in this consecutive series. The average age was 18.1 years (range 8-35 years). Fifteen tibiae and one femur were lengthened in 15 patients. Lengthening was achieved at 1 mm/day followed by distal segment fixation with three or four screws on reaching the target length. Results: The preoperative target length was successfully achieved in all patients at a mean of 4.1 cm (range 1.8-6.5 cm). The mean duration of external fixation was 75.3 days (range 33-116 days) with the mean external fixation index at 19.2 days/cm (range 10.0-38.3 days/cm). One patient suffered deep infection up to the plate, three patients had mild procurvatum deformities, and one patient developed mild tendo achilles contracture. Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis.
  3,780 242 2
Resistant clubfoot deformities managed by Ilizarov distraction histogenesis
Asadullah Makhdoom, Pir Abdul Latif Qureshi, Muhammad Faraz Jokhio, Khaleeque Ahmed Siddiqui
May-June 2012, 46(3):326-332
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96385  PMID:22719121
Background: Resistant clubfoot deformities of the foot and ankle remain a difficult problem even for the most experienced surgeon. We report a series of neglected resistant clubfoot deformities treated by limited surgery and Ilizarov distraction histogenesis. Materials and Methods: Twenty one patients with 27 feet having resistant clubfoot deformities were managed by Ilizarov distraction histogenesis from April 2005 to May 2008. The mean age was 12 years (range 8-20 years). A limited soft tissue dissection like percutaneous Achilles sheath tenotomy and plantar fasciotomy were done. Progressive correction of the deformities was achieved through the standard and simple Ilizarov frame construct setting. After removal of Ilizarov frame, a short leg walking cast was used for an additional 6 weeks, followed by an ankle foot orthrosis for 3 months. Results: The mean followup period was 18.7 months (range 20-36 months). The mean duration of fixator application was 3.6 months (range 3-5 months). At the time of removal of the fixator, a plantigrade foot was achieved in 25 feet and gait was improved in all patients. There was residual varus hind foot deformity in two patients. Out of 27 feet, 3 (11.11%) were rated as excellent, 17 (62.96%) as good, 5 (18.51%) as fair, and 2 (7.40%) as poor according to Reinkerand Carpenter scale. Excellent and good results (74.07%) were considered satisfactory, while fair and poor results (25.92%) were considered unsatisfactory. Conclusion: The short term clinical and functional results of resistant clubfoot deformities with Ilizarov's external fixator is promising and apparently a good option.
  3,474 226 8
Malrotation following reamed intramedullary nailing of closed tibial fractures
Adel Ebrahimpour Jafarinejad, Hooman Bakhshi, Maryam Haghnegahdar, Nima Ghomeishi
May-June 2012, 46(3):312-316
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96395  PMID:22719118
Background: Rotational malalignment after intramedullary tibial nailing is rarely addressed in clinical studies.Malrotation (especially >10°)of the lower extremity can lead to development and progression of degenerative changes in knee and ankle joints. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence and severity of tibial malrotation after reamed intramedullary nailing for closed diaphyseal tibial fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients (53 males and 7 females) with tibial diaphyseal fracture were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 33.4±13.3 years. All fractures were manually reduced and fixed using reamed intramedullary nailing. A standard method using bilateral limited computerized tomography was used to measure the tibial torsion. A difference greater than 10° between two tibiae was defined as malrotation. Results: Eighteen (30%) patients had malrotation of more than 10°. Malrotation was greater than 15° in seven cases. Good or excellent rotational reduction was achieved in 70% of the patients. There was no statistically significant relation between AO tibial fracture classification and fibular fixation and malrotation of greater than 10°. Conclusions: Considering the high incidence rate of tibial malrotation following intramedullary nailing, we need a precise method to evaluate the torsion intraoperatively to prevent the problem.
  3,433 244 2
Functional outcome of surgical management of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis
Rajendra Nath, Sanjay Middha, Anil Kumar Gupta, Rohit Nath
May-June 2012, 46(3):285-290
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96380  PMID:22719114
Background: The long term outcomes of decompressive surgery on relief of pain and disability in degenerative lumbar canal stenosis are unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical management of secondary degenerative lumbar canal stenosis and to analyze the effect on outcome variables using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis managed surgically were included in this study. Laminectomy (n=2), laminectomy with disectomy (n=23), laminectomy and disectomy with instrumental stabilization (n=5), and laminectomy, disectomy with posterior interbody fusion (n=2) were performed. JOA scoring system for low backache was used to assess the patients. The recovery rate was calculated as described by Hirabayashi et al. (1981). Surgical outcome was assessed based on the recovery rate and was classified using a four-grade scale: Excellent, improvement of >90%; good, 75-89% improvement; fair, 50-74% improvement; and poor, below 49% improvement. The patients were evaluated at 3 months, one year and at last followup. Results: At 3-month followup, 18.75% patients showed excellent outcome, 62.50% patients showed good outcome, and 18.75% showed fair outcome. At 1-year followup, 64% patients showed excellent outcome and 36% patients showed good outcome. At >1 year followup (average 34.2 months, range: 2-110 months), 64% patients showed excellent outcome, 28% showed good outcome, and 8% showed fair outcome. No patient had poor outcome. Outcome of the patients improved as the time after surgery increased till 1 year and was sustained thereafter till the last followup. Conclusion: Operative treatment in patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis yields excellent results as observed on the basis of JOA scoring system. No patient got recurrence of symptoms of nerve compression.
  3,226 252 1
Evaluation of a biodegradable graft substitute in rabbit bone defect model
XiaoBo Yang, Yong Li, Qiang Huang, Jing Yang, Bing Shen, FuXing Pei
May-June 2012, 46(3):266-273
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96371  PMID:22719111
Objective: To evaluate a new biodegradable copolymer calcium sulfate/poly amino acid (CS/PAA) as a graft substitute for the repair of the surgically created cancellous bone defects in rabbits and its biological properties in vivo. Materials and Methods: Cancellous bone defects were created by drilling holes in the unilateral lateral aspect of the femoral condyle of New Zealand white rabbits. Three groups were assigned: Group A rabbits were grafted with 80% CS/PAA and group B rabbits were grafted with 95% CS/PAA as two treatment groups; group C was sham-operation control group. To study the osteogenic capability in vivo, specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after implantation and were evaluated by gross assessment, X-ray, histological examination, and histomorphometry. In order to identify the molecular mechanism of bone defect repair, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected using Western blot at 4 weeks. Results: Group A and group B showed more vigorous and rapid repair leading to regeneration of cancellous bone than sham-operation control group on gross observation, radiology, and histomorphometry. There was no significant difference between groups A and B. Morphological observation and histological examination showed that the copolymers degraded in sync with the new bone formation process. The expression of BMP-2 and VEGF in implantation groups was higher than that in control group by western blot. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the novel biodegradable copolymers can repair large areas of cancellous bone defects. With its controllable degradation rate, it suggests that CS/PAA may be a series of useful therapeutic substitute for bone defects.
  3,283 103 1
CASE REPORTS
Two stage procedure for neglected transscaphoid perilunate dislocation
Hitesh Lal, Vivek Jangira, Rahul Kakran, Deepak Mittal
May-June 2012, 46(3):351-355
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.90427  PMID:22719125
We report a two-staged surgical procedure for neglected 3 month old volar transscaphoid, transcapitate perilunate fracture dislocation wrist in an 18 year old right handed male student. The lunate with proximal scaphoid and proximal capitate maintained its articulation with distal end radius while the rest of carpal bones had dislocated volarly. In the first stage, bilateral uniplanar wrist distractor was applied with the aim of stretching soft tissue. In the next stage open reduction and internal fixation was done by a combined volar and dorsal approach augmented by pronator quadratus flap. At 3 years followup the patient was pain free and had a full range of supination pronation of the forearms and radial and ulnar deviation of wrist with 10΀ dorsiflexion deficit.
  3,066 151 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Osteoporotic profiles in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar spinal canal stenosis
Byung Ho Lee, Seong Hwan Moon, Ho-Joong Kim, Hwan Mo Lee, Tae Hwan Kim
May-June 2012, 46(3):279-284
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96379  PMID:22719113
Background: The osteoporosis and lumbar canal stenosis, in elderly patients are under diagnosed and under reported. We report a cross sectional study to demonstrate the osteoporotic profile in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and to determine the proportion of patients with LSS who need to be treated for osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and six postmenopausal patients with symptomatic LSS were evaluated for osteoporotic profile, which included lumbar and hip bone mineral density (BMD), serum vitamin D concentration, bone resorption and formation markers. Demographic and disease related variables were analyzed to identify the association with the risk of osteoporosis or osteopenia. Statistical analysis used were multivariate logistic regression with a forward stepwise procedure. Results: Twenty-four patients (22.6%) had osteoporosis and 60 (56.6%) had osteopenia. Overall, 84 patients (79.2%) with symptomatic LSS had osteoporosis or osteopenia. Fifty-nine patients (55.6%) had hypovitaminosis D. All bone turnover makers [alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, urinary-N-terminal telopeptide (u-NTx)] were demonstrated to be within normal range. Only age was associated with the risk of osteoporosis or osteopenia in the hip region. In the lumbar spine, all variables were not associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia. 44 patients (41.5%) required treatment for osteoporosis as per risk factors for osteoporosis. According to the guidelines from the Health Insurance Review Agency, however, only 20 patients (18.8% required) qualified for reimbursement for osteoporosis medications. Conclusions: LSS is associated with osteopenia, osteoporosis, and hypovitaminosis D, which should prompt careful screening and treatment in cases of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.
  2,997 113 7
Prevalence of hip pathology in patients over age 50 with spinal conditions requiring surgery
Byung Ho Lee, Seong Hwan Moon, Hwan Mo Lee, Tae Hwan Kim, Seung Ju Lee
May-June 2012, 46(3):291-296
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96386  PMID:22719115
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate of prevalence of co-existing spine and hip disease using initial screening kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) radiograph in patients over 50 who underwent spinal surgery. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were 388 patients (male: female=117:271; mean age 62.0 years) who underwent spinal surgery between 2008 and 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the initial KUB radiographs used to diagnose the spine and hip disease. Depending on the extent of acetabular and hip joint visualization in KUB, we divided the subjects into three groups: Acetabulum, hip joint, and femoral neck visualization. The hip visualization rate was also assessed with respect to patient height. χ2 and logistic regression test were used for statistical analysis. Results: 126 (32.5%) cases had significant hip pathology including hip osteoarthritis (Kellgren/Lawrence grade 3 in 123 cases, grade 4 in 3 cases) and avascular necrosis (1 case each of Ficat stage IIA and IIB), and 8 cases had other morphologic abnormalities. Regarding acetabulum-hip visualization in KUB, 7 (1.8%) cases had acetabulum visualization only, 16 (4.1%) had hip joint visualization, and 365 (94.1%) had femoral neck including lesser trochanter visualization. Patients were categorized into four groups according to height (less than 150 cm, 150-159 cm, 160-169 cm, greater than 170 cm). The hip visualization rates differed significantly among these four groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of discernible hip pathology in patients who underwent spinal surgery was 32.5%. Hip joint visualization was excellent (98.2%) in KUB radiographs. Hence, spinal surgeons should pay attention to hip pathology in surgically indicated spinal patients.
  2,991 73 -
CASE REPORTS
Tourniquet associated chemical burn
Jae-Hyuk Yang, Hyungtae Lim, Jung-Ro Yoon, Hyeon-Il Jeong
May-June 2012, 46(3):356-359
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96366  PMID:22719126
Chemical burn under pneumatic tourniquet is an iatrogenic preventable injury and is rarely reported in the literature. The two important mechanisms are maceration (friction) and wetness underneath the tourniquent. In this report, our experience with two illustrative patients who presented with iatrogenic tourniquet associated burn is described.
  2,976 80 3
EDITORIAL
Orthopedic training in India: Time to change
Mayil Vahanan Natarajan
May-June 2012, 46(3):257-258
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96365  PMID:22719109
  2,602 234 1
CASE REPORTS
Amphotericin B cement beads: A good adjunctive treatment for musculoskeletal mucormycosis
Justin Arockiaraj, Gopisankar Balaji, Anand Ashok, Gautami Kokil
May-June 2012, 46(3):369-372
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96370  PMID:22719129
Mucormycosis is one among the aggressive, invasive fungal infections usually seen in immunocompromised patients. Mucormycosis osteomyelitis is very rare. We present a patient with acute myeloid leukemia who complained of pain over the right proximal thigh. Plain radiograph revealed ill defined osteolytic lesion of proximal femur. MRI showed altered signal in proximal femur with focal collection and cortical breach. Biopsy and tissue culture diagnosed mucormycosis both histologically and microbiologically. He was treated with aggressive debridement, skeletal stabilization, and amphotericin antifungal cement beads. He recovered with no residual pain, minimal limb shortening, and no clinical or radiological evidence of recurrence at 3 years followup. The high index of suspicion, early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, and adequate antifungal therapy play a significant role in the treatment of musculoskeletal mucormycosis.
  2,670 81 6
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Gorham's disease of femur - A response
Sujit Kumar Tripathy, Ramesh Kumar Sen, Tarun Goyal
May-June 2012, 46(3):373-373
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96372  PMID:22719130
  1,966 84 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The results of Grice Green subtalar arthrodesis of valgus foot in spina bifida
Fatih Küçükdurmaz, Ismail Agir, Baransel Saygi, Murat Bezer
May-June 2012, 46(3):333-338
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96384  PMID:22719122
Background: Valgus foot is a common foot deformity in spina bifida. The most popular operation for the valgus deformity has been the Grice talocalcaneal blocking. It has not been studied primarily in children with spina bifida. We report a prospective series, we present the results of hind foot valgus deformity of children with spina bifida, using Grice talocalcaneal arthrodesis with a tricortical iliac bone graft. Materials and Methods: Between May 2000 and December 2003, 21 patients with bilateral (42 feet) valgus deformity of feet underwent surgery. There were 7 males and 14 females. The mean age of patients was 67.7 months (range 50-108 months). Results: The total number of feet that had nonunion was 11, in 7 of them the grafts were completely reabsorbed and the outcome of all these feet was unsatisfactory. Four feet had partial union of which three had unsatisfactory and one had satisfactory outcome. Sixteen feet had residual valgus deformity at the last followup visit, 10 patients had nonunion, and 6 had inadequate correction. Mean preoperative talocalcaneal and calcaneal pitch angles were 48.5΀ and 31.9΀, respectively, which decreased to 38.5΀ and 29.1΀, respectively, postoperatively. The decrease in talocalcaneal angle and calcaneal pitch was significant between preoperative and postoperative measurements (P<0.05). Conclusion: Grice subtalar arthrodesis technique is still a valuable option for valgus foot in patients with spina bifida. In this study, we found more encouraging results in older patients.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR
Internal fixation of fractures of both bones forearm: Comparison of locked compression and limited contact dynamic compression plate (Letter 2)
Siddhartha Sharma, Manjeet Singh, Mohammad F Butt
May-June 2012, 46(3):375-376
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96375  PMID:22719133
  1,349 109 -
Internal fixation of fractures of both bones forearm: Comparison of locked compression and limited contact dynamic compression plate (Letter 1)
Anoop C Dhamangaonkar, Arvind B Goregaonkar
May-June 2012, 46(3):374-375
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.96374  PMID:22719132
  1,230 107 -
Authors' reply
Asif Nazir Baba, Yasmeen J Bhat, Simon D Paljor, Abid Nazir, Nazir A Khan
May-June 2012, 46(3):373-374
PMID:22719131
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