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   2008| January-March  | Volume 42 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 14, 2008

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Clubfoot: Etiology and treatment
Ashish Anand, Debra A Sala
January-March 2008, 42(1):22-28
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38576  PMID:19823650
Congenital talipes equinovarus is the commonest congenital anomaly with an incidence of one to two per 1000 live births. Over the centuries it has been treated by various modalities, but the dilemma facing the surgeon has been a strong tendency to relapse. With the use of the Ponseti technique, the number of patients who undergo soft tissue release has decreased. This technique probably represents a panacea for the treatment of this unsolved mystery.
  46,109 2,241 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of the prognosis among different age groups in elderly patients with hip fracture
Tetsuo Hagino, Satoshi Ochiai, Masanori Wako, Eiichi Sato, Shingo Maekawa, Yoshiki Hamada
January-March 2008, 42(1):29-32
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38577  PMID:19823651
Background: The outcome of treatment of hip fractures in different age groups in the elderly population is largely unknown. Hence, we stratified elderly patients with hip fracture into age groups and compared the prognosis in various age groups. Materials and Methods: Among 459 patients with hip fracture treated at our hospital from 1997, 430 patients aged 65 years or above at the time of injury were studied. The patients comprised 98 males and 332 females and the ages at injury ranged from 65 to 103 years (mean 83.4 years). There were 167 cases of femoral neck fracture and 263 cases of trochanteric fractures. Surgery was performed in 383 cases, while 47 cases were treated conservatively. The subjects were classified by age into young-old for those aged 65-74 years (group A, n = 55), middle-old for those aged 75-84 years (group B, n = 172), old-old for those aged 85-94 (group C, n = 180), and oldest-old for those aged 95 years or above (group D, n = 23). The functional and survival prognosis at discharge in each group was investigated. Results: Numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those ambulatory before injury were 43 of 49 (87.8%) in group A, 113 of 152 (74.3%) in group B, 86 of 138 (62.3%) in group C, and 5 of 14 (35.7%) in group D, showing worse recovery of walking ability as age advanced. Among those ambulatory before injury, 42 patients in group A, 139 patients in group B, 130 patients in group C, and 12 patients in group D underwent surgery and of these patients, 38 patients (90.5%) in group A, 109 patients (78.4%) in group B, 83 patients (63.8%) in group C, and 5 patients (41.7%) in group D were ambulatory at discharge. On the other hand, the numbers of patients who were ambulatory at discharge among those receiving conservative treatment were 5 of 7 (71.4%) in group A, 4 of 13 (30.8%) in group B, 3 of 8 (37.5%) in group C, and 0 of 2 (0%) in group D, showing better walking ability in surgical patients than in conservatively treated patients even in the elderly. There were two in-hospital deaths in group B, 11 in group C, and two in group D. Five of the 15 deaths were inoperable cases due to poor performance status at admission. Conclusion: Walking ability at discharge and survival prognosis worsened as age advanced. On the other hand, since surgical cases achieved better walking ability than conservatively treated cases, efforts should be made to achieve better functional prognosis even in the old-olds, including surgery together with early ambulation and rehabilitation.
  20,256 920 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Management of femoral neck fractures in young adults
Thuan V Ly, Marc F Swiontkowski
January-March 2008, 42(1):3-12
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38574  PMID:19823648
Femoral neck fractures in young adults are uncommon and often the result of high-energy trauma. They are associated with higher incidences of femoral head osteonecrosis and nonunion. Multiple factors can play a significant role in preventing these devastating complications and contribute to a good outcome. While achieving an anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are imperative, other treatment variables, such as time to surgery, the role of capsulotomy and the fixation methods remain debatable. Open reduction and internal fixation through a Watson-Jones exposure is the recommended approach. Definitive fixation can be accomplished with three cannulated or noncannulated cancellous screws. Capsulotomy in femoral neck fractures remains a controversial issue and the practice varies by trauma program, region and country. Until there is conclusive data (i.e. prospective and controlled) we recommend performing a capsulotomy. The data available is inconclusive on whether this fracture should be operated emergently, urgently or can wait until the next day. Until there is conclusive data available, we recommend that surgery should be done on an urgent basis. The key factors in treating femoral neck fractures should include early diagnosis, early surgery, anatomic reduction, capsular decompression and stable internal fixation.
  14,559 1,408 20
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
High tibial closing wedge osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthrosis of knee
SM Tuli, Varun Kapoor
January-March 2008, 42(1):73-77
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38585  PMID:19823659
Background: Most patients of symptomatic osteoarthrosis of knee are associated with varus malalignment that is causative or contributory to painful arthrosis. It is rational to correct the malalignment to transfer the functional load to the unaffected or less affected compartment of the knee to relieve symptoms. We report the outcome of a simple technique of high tibial osteotomy in the medial compartment osteoarthrosis of the knee. Materials and Methods: Between 1996 and 2004 we performed closing wedge osteotomy in 78 knees in 65 patients. The patients selected for osteotomy were symptomatic essentially due to medial compartment osteoarthrosis associated with moderate genu varum. Of the 19 patients who had bilateral symptomatic disease 11 opted for high tibial osteotomy of their second knee 1-3 years after the first operation. Preoperative grading of osteoarthrosis and postoperative function was assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) rating scale. Results: At a minimum follow-up of 2 years (range 2-9 years) 6-10 of valgus correction at the site of osteotomy was maintained, there was significant relief of pain while walking, negotiating stairs, squatting and sitting cross-legged. Walking distance in all patients improved by two to four times their preoperative distance of 200-400 m. No patient lost any preoperative knee function. The mean JOA scoring improved from preoperative 54 (40-65) to 77 (55-85) at final follow-up. Conclusion: Closing wedge high tibial osteotomy performed by our technique can be undertaken in any setup with moderate facilities. Operation related complications are minimal and avoidable. Kirschner wire fixation is least likely to interfere with replacement surgery if it becomes necessary.
  10,933 728 3
Closed reduction, internal fixation with quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting in displaced femoral neck fracture
Sibaji Chaudhuri
January-March 2008, 42(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38578  PMID:19823652
Background: Management of femoral neck fracture is still considered as an unsolved problem. It is more evident in displaced fractures where this fracture is considered as some sort of vascular insult to the head of the femur. We have used closed reduction, internal fixation and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting in fresh displaced femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods: From April 1996 to December 2004 we operated 73 consecutive patients of displaced femoral neck fracture in the age group of 24 to 81 years, mean age being 54.6 years. The patients were operated within one week of injury, the mean delay being 3.6 days. Closed reduction internal fixation along with quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting was done in all cases. They were followed up for an average period of 5.6 years (range 2-11 years). Results: Results were assessed according to modified Harris Hip Scoring system and found to be excellent in 53, good in 12, fair in six and poor in two patients. Bony union occurred in 68 cases, no patient developed avascular necrosis (AVN) till date. Conclusion: For fresh displaced femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients closed reduction, internal fixation and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting is a suitable option to secure union and prevent development of AVN.
  10,523 513 4
Use of the Ponseti method for recurrent clubfoot following posteromedial release
Sumeet Garg, Matthew B Dobbs
January-March 2008, 42(1):68-72
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38584  PMID:19823658
Background: A child with recurrent or incompletely corrected clubfoot after previous extensive soft tissue release is treated frequently with revision surgery. This leads to further scarring, pain and limitations in range of motion. We have utilized the Ponseti method of manipulation and casting and when indicated, tibialis anterior tendon transfer, instead of revision surgery for these cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all children treated since 2002 ( n = 11) at our institution for recurrent or incompletely corrected clubfoot after previous extensive soft tissue release was done. Clinical and operative records were reviewed to determine procedure performed. Ponseti manipulation and casting were done until the clubfoot deformity was passively corrected. Based on the residual equinus and dynamic deformity, heel cord lengthening or tenotomy and tibialis anterior transfer were then done. Clinical outcomes regarding pain, function and activity were reviewed. Results: Eleven children (17 feet) with ages ranging from 1.1 to 8.4 years were treated with this protocol. All were correctable with the Ponseti method with one to eight casts. Casts were applied until the only deformities remaining were either or both hindfoot equinus and dynamic supination. Nine feet required a heel cord procedure for equinus and 15 required tibialis anterior transfer for dynamic supination. Seven children have follow-up greater than one year (average 27.1 months) and have had excellent results. Two patients had persistent hindfoot valgus which required hemiepiphyseodesis of the distal medial tibia. Conclusion: The Ponseti method, followed by tibialis anterior transfer and/or heel cord procedure when indicated, can be successfully used to correct recurrent clubfoot deformity in children treated with previous extensive soft tissue release. Early follow-up has shown correction without revision surgery. This treatment protocol prevents complications of stiffness, pain and difficulty in ambulating associated with multiple soft tissue releases for clubfeet.
  9,027 511 26
Internal fixation and muscle pedicle bone grafting in femoral neck fractures
AK Gupta, Sanjai Rastogi, R Nath
January-March 2008, 42(1):39-42
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38579  PMID:19823653
Background: The treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture is still an unsolved problem. Non-union and avascular necrosis are the two main complications of this fracture, especially if patient presents late. Muscle pedicle bone grafting has been advocated to provide additional blood supply. We present analysis of our 32 cases of displaced femoral neck fracture treated by internal fixation and quadratus femoris based muscle pedicle bone grafting. Materials and Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation with muscle pedicle grafting was done in 32 patients. The age of patients varied from 14-62 years (average age 45 years) with male to female ratio of 13:3. Twenty-nine fractures were more than three weeks old. All the cases were treated by Meyers' procedure. The fracture was internally fixed after open reduction and then a muscle pedicle graft was applied. It was supplemented by cancellous bone graft in seven cases. Fixation was done by parallel cancellous lag screws ( n = 19), crossed Garden's screws ( n = 7), parallel Asnis screws ( n = 5) and Moore's pin ( n = 1).Quadratus femoris muscle pedicle graft was used in 32 cases. In the initial 12 cases the graft was fixed with circumferential proline sutures, but later, to provide a secure fixation, the graft was fixed with a cancellous screw ( n = 20). Postoperative full weight bearing was deferred to an average of 10 weeks. Results: Union was achieved in 26/29 (89.65%) cases which could be followed for an average period of 3.4 years, (2-8.5 years) with good functional results and had the ability to squat and sit cross-legged. Results were based on hip rating system given by Salvatti and Wilson. The results were excellent in 15 cases, good in four cases, fair in four cases and poor in six cases. Complications were avascular necrosis ( n = 2), transient foot drop ( n = 2), coxa-vara ( n = 1) and temporary loss of scrotal sensation ( n = 1). Conclusion: Muscle pedicle bone grafting with internal fixation is a viable treatment option in displaced femoral neck fractures with late presentation.
  8,887 513 5
Prosthetic replacement in femoral neck fracture in the elderly: Results and review of the literature
SKS Marya, R Thukral, Chandeep Singh
January-March 2008, 42(1):61-67
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38583  PMID:19823657
Background: Intracapsular fractures of the proximal femur account for a major share of fractures in the elderly. The primary goal of treatment is to return the patient to his or her pre-fracture functional status. There are multiple internal fixation options (screws, dynamic hip screw plate or blade plates) and hemi and total hip arthroplasty. Open reduction and internal fixation has been shown to have a high rate of revision surgery due to nonunion and avascular necrosis. Hip replacement arthroplasty (hemi or total) is a viable treatment option. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four elderly patients (age >70 years) with a femoral neck fracture were treated over a five-year period (January 2001 to December 2006). Eighty of the 84 patients underwent some form of hip replacement after appropriate medical and anesthetic fitness. Results: We had good results in all the patients in terms of return to pre-fracture level of activity, independent ambulation and satisfaction with the procedure. Patients over the age of 80 years who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty all progressed well without any complication. Patients in their seventies underwent some form of total hip replacement and barring one case of deep infection, two cases of deep vein thrombosis and three cases of dislocation (which were managed conservatively), there were no real complications. Conclusion: Hip replacement (hemi or total) is a successful procedure for the elderly population over 70 years with femoral neck fractures. Return to pre-morbid level of activity and independent functions occur very swiftly, avoiding the hazards of prolonged incumbency. We have proposed a treatment algorithm following the results of treatment of this fracture in our series. We have also reviewed the different contemporary treatment options used (conservative treatment, cancellous screw fixation, Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) fixation, hemi and total hip replacement) used for treatment of an elderly patient with of femoral neck fracture.
  8,207 752 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nonunion of the femoral neck: Possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities
Ernst LFB Raaymakers, Rene K Marti
January-March 2008, 42(1):13-21
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38575  PMID:19823649
Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip arthroplasties, especially in younger people and in the presence of osteopenia, are not always as expected; and a less radical approach is worth considering. The intertrochanteric valgization osteotomy, described by Pauwels, is an excellent alternative for healthy patients up to 65 years of age with a nonunion of the femoral neck. A union rate of 80-90% of the nonunion is described by most authors. Leg length inequallity, rotational and angular deformities can be corrected at the same time. During the period 1973-1995, we performed valgization osteotomy according to Pauwels in 66 patients of, 18-72 years old (mean 49.5 years). 24 (37%) of our patients died 4 months to 24 years (mean: 9.5 years) after the operation. Union of the femoral neck was achieved in 58 (88%) of the 66 patients; union of the osteotomy in 65 patients (99%). A good or excellent result was achieved in 62% (23 uneventful and 13 with healed, necrosis/arthrosis without need for further treatment) of our patients. However, the method has its limits. We feel if there is too little bone stock inside the femoral head, a valgization osteotomy does not give good result. The radiographic signs of avascular necrosis in patients over 30 years of age is considered a contraindication for an osteotomy. However our results show that it is worthwhile trying to save the joint of young patients even in case of a segmental collapse. In the race between revascularization and collapse, often revascularization is the winner. We deliberately give nature its chance and don't rely on the result of bleeding from drill holes in the head, nuclear scans and other methods to estimate vascularity. A secondary total hip replacement if necessary because of avascular necrosis or osteoarthritis is considerably postponed; and better milieu for hip replacement can be achieved by the development of sclerotic bone in the subchondral areas of the acetabulum and femoral head. Between 65 and 80 years of age, a total hip replacement is probably the best option for fit patients. We treat fresh femoral neck fractures with a hemiarthroplasty in patients over the biological age of 80 years. Logically the same choice will be made for patients with a nonunion. During the period 1973-1995 we performed hemiarthroplasty ( n = 34) in patient with low general condition. Their mean age was 79 years. The average survival in these patients was less than three years and that explains probably the low late complication rate: in this group. Total hip replacement was performed in 37 younger patients with a mean age of 69 years. They were not considered for a valgization osteotomy because of age being over 70 years, severe osteoporosis or a total collapse of the femoral head. In this group, we observed one aseptic cup revision and two extractions of the prosthesis because of a deep infection.
  7,888 1,002 13
CASE REPORTS
Traction apophysitis of medial malleolus: A case report with review of the literature
Rajiv Gupta, Sumit Batra, Ashu Verma, VK Sharma, Shabnam B Grover
January-March 2008, 42(1):91-93
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38589  PMID:19823663
Traction apophysitis of medial malleolus is very rare and presented in view of its rarity. A 13 years old boy presented with pain and swelling without history of trauma around left ankle of 3 months duration. The swelling was diffuse with tenderness on anterior aspect of medial malleolus. The overlying skin was normal. The X-rays revealed fragmented accessory ossification centre of medial malleolus an left side. MRI revealed multiple foci of hypointensity in T1 and T2 weighted images of left medial malleolus apophysis. Patient was treated in below knee plaster for three weeks with restriction of sports activities for 5 weeks. The patient became asymptomatic in 8 weeks.
  8,507 224 3
Progeria syndrome: A case report
Rajul Rastogi, SM Chander Mohan
January-March 2008, 42(1):97-99
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38591  PMID:19823665
Progeria is a rare and peculiar combination of dwarfism and premature aging. The incidence is one in several million births. It occurs sporadically and is probably an autosomal recessive syndrome. Though the clinical presentation is usually typical, conventional radiological and biochemical investigations help in confirming the diagnosis. We present a rare case of progeria with most of the radiological features as a pictorial essay.
  8,168 364 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Decompression of peripheral nerve trunks in leprosy to prevent the development and progression of deformities
Sajid Husain, Birjendra Mishra
January-March 2008, 42(1):78-82
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38586  PMID:19823660
Background: Peripheral nerve involvement results in deformities in leprosy. High doses (40-60 mg) of steroids along with anti-leprosy drugs is the preferred treatment, even though 70-75% cases still develop deformity. Early surgical decompression of nerves gives better chances of preventing deformity. We have analyzed the role of early surgical decompression in such cases. Materials and Methods: Five hundred nerves (386 ulnar, 60 median and 54 posterior tibial) not responding to the medical treatment in 12 weeks, were undertaken for external and internal nerve trunk decompression. These cases were followed up for five to 20 years at various intervals. Results: The pain in nerve (neuralgia) recovered in all cases of ulnar, median and posterior tibial nerves. Full sensory recovery to pinprick and feather or cotton wool touch was seen in 50% cases of all the three nerves. Twenty percent cases maintained the preoperative levels of sensory status. Plantar ulcers healed within six months after decompression of posterior tibial nerve but six cases showed recurrence. Overall motor recovery in ulnar nerve was 89% and 70% in median nerve. Conclusions: The sensory recovery restores protective sensation which prevents secondary injuries. The improvement of motor power gives better function and improves the appearance, which in the absence of surgical intervention was not possible.
  7,865 317 5
Cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients
Yusuf Ozturkmen, Mahmut Karamehmetoglu, Mustafa Caniklioglu, Yener Ince, Ibrahim Azboy
January-March 2008, 42(1):56-60
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38582  PMID:19823656
Objectives: The use of cement is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rate in elderly patients, hence cementless hemiarthroplasty is suggested. We evaluated the results of cementless hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients (29 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 88 years (range: 78 to 102 years). having femoral neck fractures were treated with the use of cementless hemiarthroplasty. Porous-coated femoral stems were used in 30 patients (62%) and modular type femoral revision stems in 18 patients (38%). Bipolar femoral heads were used in all patients. Radiological follow-up after operation was done at the one, three, six months and annually. Results: The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 18 months to eight years). None of the patients died during hospitalization. Medical complications occurred in six patients (12%) within the follow-up period and four patients (8%) died within this period. Only two hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty due to acetabular erosion. Femoral revision was planned for one patient with a subsidence of > 3 mm. None of the patients had acetabular protrusion or heterotopic ossification. The mean Harris-hip score was 84 (range: 52 to 92). Dislocation occured in one patient (2%). Conclusion: Cementless hemiarthroplasty is a suitable method of treatment for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients with high-risk clinical problems especially of a cardiopulmonary nature. This method decreases the risk of hypotension and fat embolism associated with cemented hemiarthroplasty.
  6,783 530 9
Functional outcome of modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy and total hip arthroplasty in femoral neck fractures in elderly patients
Narender K Magu, Rochak Tater, Rajesh Rohilla, Ashish Gulia, Roop Singh, Pardeep Kamboj
January-March 2008, 42(1):49-55
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38581  PMID:19823655
Background: A high union rate (75%-100%) with a lower incidence of avascular necrosis (8%-9.3%) has been reported with intertrochanteric osteotomy in femoral neck fractures in elderly whereas arthroplasty eliminates the incidence of nonunion and avascular necrosis We present a series of femoral neck fracture in elderly treated with modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy and total hip arthroplasty for their functional outcome. Materials and Methods: 29 elderly patients of 60 years and above sustaining fresh subcapital femoral neck fracture underwent total hip arthroplasty (group I, n=14) and modified Pauwels' intertrochanteric osteotomy (group II, n=15). Functions were evaluated using modified Harris hip score, d'Aubigne and postel criteria and SF-36 score at 6, 12, 52 and 100 weeks. Results: The fracture union in group II was achieved in 14 (93.3%) patients at the fracture site at an average of 15 weeks and osteotomy united in all patients. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was observed in one patient (6.7%). Average operative time was 88.9 and 65.6 minutes in group I and II, respectively (P value = 0.00001). An average of 0.8 and 0.2 unit blood was transfused in patients in group I and II, respectively (P value = 0.001). Average time of full weight bearing was 6.1 weeks and 11.6 weeks in group I and group II, respectively. At 100 weeks 71.4% (n = 10) patients in group I and 80% (n = 12) patients in group II showed good to excellent results on the basis of modified Harris hip score. 71.4% (n = 10) patients in group I and 66.6% (n = 10) patients in group II showed good to excellent results on the basis of d'Aubigne criteria. Average SF-36 score was 17.2% in group I and 17.6% in group II. Revision osteotomy was performed in one patient in group II because of implant cut through. Another patient in group II underwent THR because of painful hip. One patient in group I presented with dislocation after 3 weeks of surgery. Conclusion: Functional results of total hip arthroplasty and intertrochanteric osteotomy are comparable and the valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy with osteosynthesis in subcapital femoral neck fractures in elderly patients of sixty years and above may be considered as an option.
  5,944 437 4
CASE REPORTS
Conus medullaris syndrome due to an intradural disc herniation: A case report
Kshitij S Chaudhary, Mihir R Bapat
January-March 2008, 42(1):94-96
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38590  PMID:19823664
A 70-year-old male patient developed acute paraplegia due to conus medullaris compression secondary to extrusion of D12-L1 disc. After negative epidural examination intraoperatively, a durotomy was performed and an intradural disc fragment was excised. Patient did not regain ambulatory status at two-year follow-up. Intraoperative finding of negative extradural compression, tense swollen dura and CSF leak from ventral dura should alert the surgeon for the possibility of intradural disc herniation. A routine preoperative MRI is misleading and a high index of suspicion helps to avoid a missed diagnosis.
  6,062 283 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Unstable recent intracapsular femoral neck fractures in young adults: Osteosynthesis and primary valgus osteotomy using broad dynamic compression plate
MP Singh, Aditya N Aggarwal, Anil Arora, Ish K Dhammi, Jagjit Singh
January-March 2008, 42(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38580  PMID:19823654
Background: Displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures continue to be a difficult problem to treat. Various treatment modalities and their modifications have been proposed to improve the outcome. Osteosynthesis and primary valgus angulation osteotomy is one of them. Technique and outcome in a consecutive series of recent intracapsular femoral neck fractures in young adults, from a single center, is presented. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients of recent (<3 weeks old) displaced intracapsular fracture neck femur (Garden III and IV, Pauwels III, with or without comminution) in the age group 20-50 years (mean 35.410.4 years) were subjected to osteosynthesis and primary valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy using contoured broad dynamic compression plate (DCP). The patients were followed up from two to six years (mean 4.6 years). Results: Fifty-one fractures united by six months of the index procedure (92.7% union range). Avascular necrosis (AVN) developed in six patients (11%). The other complications were shortening (six), coxa vara (two), infection (two) and delayed union at osteotomy site (one). Excellent results were achieved in 48, good/fair in four and poor in three patients. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with cancellous screw and primary valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy stabilized by a contoured broad DCP is a simple, easy to perform, biological treatment. Failure in a particular case can be treated with any appropriate second procedure. Level of Evidence: IV
  5,426 595 4
Fibular allograft and anterior plating for dislocations/fractures of the cervical spine
A Ramnarain, S Govender
January-March 2008, 42(1):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38587  PMID:19823661
Background: Subaxial cervical spine dislocations are common and often present with neurological deficit. Posterior spinal fusion has been the gold standard in the past. Pain and neck stiffness are often the presenting features and may be due to failure of fixation and extension of fusion mass. Anterior spinal fusion which is relatively atraumatic is thus favored using autogenous grafts and cages with anterior plate fixation. We evaluated fresh frozen fibular allografts and anterior plate fixation for anterior fusion in cervical trauma. Materials and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with single-level dislocations or fracture dislocations of the subaxial cervical spine were recruited in this prospective study following a motor vehicle accident. There were 38 males and 22 females. The mean age at presentation was 34 years (range 19-67 years). The levels involved were C5/6 ( n = 36), C4/5 ( n = 15), C6/7 ( n = 7) and C3/4 ( n = 2). There were 38 unifacet dislocations with nine posterior element fractures and 22 were bifacet dislocations. Twenty-two patients had neurological deficit. Co-morbidities included hypertension ( n = 6), non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ( n = 2) and asthma ( n = 1). All patients were initially managed on skull traction. Following reduction further imaging included Computerized Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patients underwent anterior surgery (discectomy, fibular allograft and plating). All patients were immobilized in a Philadelphia collar for eight weeks (range 7-12 weeks). Eight patients were lost to follow-up within a year. Follow-up clinical and radiological examinations were performed six-weekly for three months and subsequently at three-monthly intervals for 12 months. Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale (VAS). The mean follow-up was 19 months (range 14-39 months). Results: Eight lost to followup, hence 52 patients were considered for final evaluation. The neurological recovery was 1.1 Frankel grades (range 0-3) and two patients with root involvement recovered. At six months bony trabeculae at the graft-vertebrae interface were noted. There were 12 (20 %) cases of graft collapse and one case of angulation which showed no progression. At six months the VAS was 3 (range 0-6). There was no limitation of neck motion at six months in 47 patients. Conclusion: Fresh frozen fibular allografts are suitable and cost-effective for anterior fusion in cervical trauma.
  5,381 216 1
EDITORIAL
Femoral neck fractures
Hardas S Sandhu, Mandeep S Dhillon, Anil K Jain
January-March 2008, 42(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38573  PMID:19823647
  4,709 755 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tibiotalar arthrodesis for injuries of the talus
Jaswant Singh
January-March 2008, 42(1):87-90
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38588  PMID:19823662
Background: Fracture-dislocation of the talus is one of the most severe injuries of the ankle. Opinion varies widely as to the proper treatment of this injury. Since Blair's original description of the tibiotalar fusion in 1943, there is little mention in the literature of his method. The present study reports the results of tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair's technique. Materials and Methods: Eleven cases of modified Blair ' s tibiotalar arthrodesis were retrospectively studied. The average age was 32.4 years (range, 26-51 years). Six patients had posttraumatic avascular necrosis; five had neglected fracture-dislocation of the talus. Results: The mean followup is 8 years (range 3-12 years). Tibiotalar fusion was achieved in all the ankles at an average of 20.5 weeks (range 16-28 weeks). Nine cases having 15-20 tibiopedal motion had excellent results and two ankles having 10-15 of tibiopedal motion had good result. Conclusion: We achieved good long term results with tibiotalar arthrodesis with modification in Blair technique. The principal modification in the present study is retention of the talar body while performing arthrodesis with anterior sliding graft. The retention of the talar body provides intraoperative stability and in the long term, the retained talar body shares the load transmitted to the anterior and middle subtalar joints thus resulting in improved hind foot function and gait.
  4,704 357 3
CASE REPORTS
Chondroblastoma patella presenting as a pathological fracture
Narayan Gudi, VR Venkatesh Reddy, KJC Chidanand
January-March 2008, 42(1):100-101
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.38592  PMID:19823666
A 24-year-old male presented with an inability to walk after a trivial fall. He had pain and mild swelling anterior to the right knee for the past one year. X-ray showed a transverse fracture of patella with a lytic lesion occupying most of the two halves of the patella. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the lytic lesion revealed a few osteoclastic giant cells and occasional osteoblasts against a hemorrhagic background. Patellectomy was performed. Histology revealed trabecular bone admixed with proliferating chondroid tissue at places admixed with myxoid and fibrous tissue with focal areas of calcification suggestive of chondroblastoma. Focal areas showed osteoclastic giant cells with areas of hemorrhage. The purpose is to present a rare tumor occurring at an unusual site which presented as pathological fracture.
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