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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-October 2015
Volume 49 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 489-576

Online since Tuesday, September 01, 2015

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Proximal tibiofibular joint: Rendezvous with a forgotten articulation p. 489
Amitav Sarma, Bhaskar Borgohain, Bishwajeet Saikia
The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) is a plane type synovial joint. The primary function of the PTFJ is dissipation of torsional stresses applied at the ankle and the lateral tibial bending moments besides a very significant tensile, rather than compressive weight bearing. Though rare, early diagnosis and treatment of the PTFJ dislocation are essential to prevent chronic joint instability and extensive surgical intervention to restore normal PTFJ biomechanics, ankle and knee function, especially in athletes prone to such injuries. PTFJ dislocations often remain undiagnosed in polytrauma scenario with ipsilateral tibial fracture due to the absence of specific signs and symptoms of PTFJ injury. Standard orthopedic textbooks generally describe no specific tests or radiological signs for assessment of the integrity of this joint. The aim of this paper was to review the relevant clinical anatomy, biomechanics and traumatic pathology of PTFJ with its effect on the knee emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis through a high index of suspicion. Dislocation of the joint may have serious implications for the knee joint stability since fibular collateral ligament and posterolateral ligament complex is attached to the upper end of the fibula. Any high energy knee injury with peroneal nerve palsy should immediately raise the suspicion of PTFJ dislocation especially if the mechanism of injury involved knee twisting in flexion beyond 80° and in such cases a comparative radiograph of the contralateral side should be performed. Wider clinical awareness can avoid both embarrassingly extensive surgeries due to diagnostic delays or unnecessary overtreatment due to misinformation on the part of the treating surgeon.
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Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement p. 496
Milind M Chaudhary, Ishani M Chaudhary, KN Vikas, Aung KoKo, Than Zaw, A Siddhartha
Background: Cam femoroacetabular impingement is caused by a misshapen femoral head with a reduced head neck offset, commonly in the anterolateral quadrant. Friction in flexion, adduction and internal rotation causes limitation of the hip movements and pain progressively leading to labral and chondral damage and osteoarthritis. Surgical hip dislocation described by Ganz permits full exposure of the hip without damaging its blood supply. An osteochondroplasty removes the bump at the femoral head neck junction to recreate the offset for impingement free movement. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients underwent surgery with surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement by open osteochondroplasty over last 6 years. Eight patients suffered from sequelae of avascular necrosis (AVN). Three had a painful dysplastic hip. Two had sequelae of Perthes disease. Three had combined cam and pincer impingement caused by retroversion of acetabulum. All patients were operated by the trochanteric flip osteotomy with attachments of gluteus medius and vastus lateralis, dissection was between the piriformis and gluteus minimus preserving the external rotators. Z-shaped capsular incision and dislocation of the hip was done in external rotation. Three cases also had subtrochanteric osteotomy. Two cases of AVN also had an intraarticular femoral head reshaping osteotomy. Results: Goals of treatment were achieved in all patients. No AVN was detected after a 6 month followup. There were no trochanteric nonunions. Hip range of motion improved in all and Harris hip score improved significantly in 15 of 16 cases. Mean alpha angle reduced from 86.13° (range 66°–108°) to 46.35° (range 39°–58°). Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term.
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Proximal tibial fractures with impending compartment syndrome managed by fasciotomy and internal fixation A retrospective analysis of 15 cases Highly accessed article p. 502
Naveen Sharma, Varun Singh, Ashish Agrawal, Rakesh Bhargava
Background: Proximal tibia fractures with compartment syndrome present a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. More often than not these patients are subjected to multiple surgeries and are complicated by infection osteomyelitis and poor rehabilitation. There is no consensus in the management of these fractures. Most common mode is to do early fasciotomy with external fixation, followed by second stage definitive fixation. We performed a retrospective study of proximal tibia fractures with impending compartment syndrome treated by single stage fasciotomy and internal fixation. Results in terms of early fracture union, minimum complications and early patient mobilization were very good. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who were operated between July 2011 and June 2012 were selected for the study. All documents from their admission until the last followup in December 2013 were reviewed, data regarding complications collected and results were evaluated using Oxford Knee scoring system. Results: At the final outcome, there was anatomical or near anatomical alignment with no postoperative problems with range of motion of near complete flexion (>120) in all patients within 3 months. 13 patients started full weight bearing walking at 3 months. Delayed union in two patients and skin necrosis in one patient was observed. Conclusions: Since the results are encouraging and the rehabilitation time is much less when compared to conventional approaches, it is recommended using this protocol to perform early fasciotomy with the definitive internal fixation as single stage surgery to obtain excellent followup results and to reduce rehabilitation time, secondary trauma, expense of treatment and infection rate.
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Arthroscopic repair of the meniscal injury using meniscal repair device p. 510
Tang Hengtao, Su Xuntong
Background: Total meniscus resection after meniscus tear usually leads to faster degeneration and osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Preservation and repair of the injured menisci are therefore of great clinical importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of arthroscopic repair of meniscal injuries using the Fast-Fix device. Materials and Methods: 96 patients (58 males, 38 females) with mean age of 24.3 years (range 12–46 years)) with a meniscus injury were treated with the Fast-Fix device under arthroscopy between July 2007 and June 2009. The right and left knees were involved in 46 and 50 patients respectively. In 12, 46 and 38 patients, the injury was located in the anterior horn, body and posterior horn respectively. In 38, 45 and 13 patients, it was in the red, red-white, and white regions, respectively. All-inside and outside-in techniques were used for these meniscal injuries. Criteria for successful surgery were no locking pain or swelling and a negative McMurray test. Results: The mean followup period was 3.7 years (range 2–5 years). The surgical success rate was 91.7% (n = 88). The mean Lysholm score increased from 47.8 ± 10.4 preoperatively to 85.7 ± 12.8 postoperatively. The mean Tegner activity score was 7.4 ± 1.6 (range 5–9) preinjury, 2.1 ± 0.9 (range 0–4) preoperatively and 7.2 ± 2.2 (range 4–10) postoperatively (P < 0.001). A total of 92 patients (95.8%) returned to full-time work. The International Knee Documentation Committee score increased from 32.7 ± 10.7 (range 10.3–51.7) preoperatively to 82.5 ± 5.1 (range 65.1–91.2) postoperatively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The Fast-Fix system is an efficient, safe and effective suture technique for meniscal repair.
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Reconstruction by bone transport after resection of benign tumors of tibia: A retrospective study of 38 patients p. 516
Dmitry Y Borzunov, Pavel I Balaev, Koushik N Subramanyam
Background: The commonly used reconstructive options after post resection defects in bone tumors like megaprosthesis, autograft, allograft, bone graft substitutes and recycled bone have their own demerits on a long term. Bone transport that regenerates patient's own bone is a less explored option of reconstruction after resection of benign bone tumors and reports on this are limited. This technique is very much relevant in tibia where Ilizarov fixator is surgeon and patient friendly. We report our experience. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective series of resection and bone transport in 38 patients with benign tumor of tibia. There were 14 males and 24 females with mean age of 23.40 years (range 9–40 years). Lesion was located in proximal third tibia in 27, middle third in two and distal third in nine patients. The diagnosis was giant cell tumor in 32, chondroblastoma in three, chondromyxoid fibroma, enchondroma and desmoplasic fibroma in one patient each. The resection was intercalary in 28 and transarticular in 10 patients. Osteosynthesis was monofocal in three, bifocal in 31 and polyfocal in four cases. Results: Mean followup was 7.22 years (range 1.5–15 years). Mean resection length was 10.21 cm (range 3–22 cm). The mean duration of external fixator was 308.03 days (range 89–677 days) and mean external fixator index was 36.14 days/cm (range 16.84–97.43 days/cm). Twelve patients had difficulties in the form of 11 problems and five obstacles that were successfully managed. None of the patients had local recurrence of tumor or any long term complication. Mean Musculo-skeletal Tumour Society score at final followup was 27.18 (90.60%). Conclusions: Bone transport is an excellent option after resection of benign tumors of tibia with good local control and functional outcome, despite minor difficulties that need timely management.
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Condylar orientation plating in comminuted intraarticular fractures of adult distal humerus p. 523
Sukhendu Sarkhel, Sailendra Bhattacharyya, Somnath Mukherjee
Background: The condyles of the distal humerus have characteristic orientation in reference to the diaphysis. Anatomical reduction of the articular surface in intraarticular fractures of adult distal humerus does not always restore preinjury functional status. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of treating these fractures with technique of condylar orientation precontoured plating. The principle of the technique is to primarily restore the anatomical orientation of the reconstructed distal humeral condyle with the diaphysis of the humerus apart from anatomical reduction of fracture. Materials and Methods: Seventy one consecutive patients with comminuted intraarticular adult distal humerus fractures were treated with the condylar orientation plates, which were specifically designed between 1999 and 2009. 43 fractures were Association for osteosynthesis (AO) type C3, 24 were C2 and 4 were C1. Six were open cases and two were of nonunion distal end humerus. On medial and posterolateral side of the distal humerus, precontoured Sherman plates were applied. Patients were followed up for a mean of 3 years. They were assessed clinically (using mayo elbow performance score [MEPS]) and radio-graphically. Results: Sixty (84.5%) patients regained MEPS of 90 or more that is an excellent result (range of movement and functional status). One patient had nonunion with implant failure, and two patients developed heterotopic ossification. The mean MEPS was 95. Average extension and flexion was 15° and 133°. The result was graded as excellent in 60, good in 7, fair in 3 and poor in 1. At the time of most recent followup, 63 elbows were painless, and eight had mild pain. Conclusion: Excellent pain free range of motion with a high rate of union can be achieved in comminuted intraarticular distal humerus fractures in adults with the use of condylar orientation precontoured plating technique. Condylar orientation is very important with perfect articular congruity in elbow motion.
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Early results of displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus in children treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning p. 529
Anmol Sharma, Jaswinder P S Walia, Bhupinder S Brar, Sudhir Sethi
Background: Displaced supracondylar fractures are notorious for difficulty in reduction, maintenance of reduction and frequent involvement of neurovascular structures. No general agreement on the treatment is evident with controversy prevailing regarding the ideal timing of surgery, method of maintenance of reduction and configuration of the pin fixation. A crossed pin configuration, though believed by some to be mechanically more stable than the lateral pins alone, has the risk of ulnar nerve injury due to the medial pin. Lateral pins alone impart less rotational stability to the fracture although it has been attributed mainly to technical errors of pin placement. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of treatment of this fracture using one lateral and one trans-olecranon K-wires or lateral entry K-wires alone. Materials and Methods: Ninety cases of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 6.7 years (range 3–12 years). The male/female ratio was 5:1 and left side was involved in 70% whereas 30% had right sided injuries. The most common mode of trauma was fall from height with elbow in extension. All the 90 consecutively admitted patients had extension type injury with 73.3% fractures being Gartland type III and 26.7% were type II. Posteromedial displacement was noted in 70% whereas 30% fractures were posterolaterally displaced. In 60 cases, lateral entry wires alone were used whereas, in 30 cases, one lateral and another transolecranon transarticular K-wire was used. K-wires were removed at 3 weeks postoperatively and followup was done at 6 weeks and 12 weeks when they were evaluated according to the criteria described by Flynn. Chi-square test was used as a statistical test of significance to compare results among different variables. Results: Results were graded according to Flynn's criteria. Excellent results were achieved in 12 (13.3%), good in 54 (60%), fair in 15 (16.7%) while in nine patients (10%) poor results were obtained. Conclusions: Both lateral entry K-wires and lateral-trans-olecranon wire techniques provide stable fixation when observing the guidelines for wire placement and consistently satisfactory results can be obtained, both cosmetically and functionally with both the techniques.
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Two peg spade plate for distal radius fractures A novel technique p. 536
Sharad M Hardikar, Sreenivas Prakash, Madan S Hardikar, Rohit Kumar
Background: The management of distal radius fractures raises considerable debate among orthopedic surgeons. The amount of axial shortening of the radius correlates with the functional disability after the fracture. Furthermore, articular incongruity has been correlated with the development of arthritis at the radiocarpal joint. We used two peg volar spade plate to provide a fixed angle subchondral support in comminuted distal radius fractures with early mobilization of the joint. Materials and Methods: Forty patients (26 males and 14 females) from a period between January 2009 and December 2011 were treated with two peg volar spade plate fixation for distal radius fracture after obtaining reduction using a mini external fixator. Patients were evaluated using the demerit point system of Gartland and Werley and Sarmiento modification of Lindstrom criteria at final followup of 24 months. Results: The average age was 43.55 years (range 23-57 years). Excellent to good results were seen in 85% (n = 34) and in all patients when rated according to the demerit point system of Gartland and Werley and Sarmiento modification of Lindstrom criteria, respectively. Complications observed were wrist stiffness in 5% (n = 2) and reflex sympathetic dystrophy in 2.5% (n = 1). Conclusions: The two peg volar spade plate provides a stable subchondral support in comminuted intraarticular fractures and maintains reduction in osteoporotic fractures of the distal radius. Early mobilization with this implant helps in restoring wrist motion and to prevent development of wrist stiffness.
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Outcome of low level lasers versus ultrasonic therapy in de Quervain’s tenosynovitis p. 542
Renu Sharma, Aditya N Aggarwal, Shuchi Bhatt, Sudhir Kumar, SK Bhargava
Background: de Quervain’s tenosynovitis is an inflammation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscle tendon sheaths at the level of radial styloid process. Its conservative management includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, wrist and thumb immobilization, ultrasonic therapy (US Th.) and low level laser therapy (LLLT). Literature is scanty on comparative efficacy of US Th. and LLLT for its management. This prospective study evaluates outcome of US Th. versus LLLT in de Quervain’s disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients clinically diagnosed de Quervains tenosynovitis were included in the study and randomly assigned to two groups. The average age was 36 years (range: 21-45 years). One group was given LLLT and the other US Th. for a total of 7 exposures on alternate days. The clinical criteria used were Finkelstein’s test, tenderness over radial styloid (Ritchie’s tenderness scale), grip strength, pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) and radiological criteria was ultrasonographic assessment of change in thickness of APL and EPB tendon sheath. They were measured before commencement and at the end of seven sessions of therapy, as per standard procedure. Results: Significant improvement was seen within both groups in the following outcome measures assessed: Ritchie’s tenderness scale, grip strength and VAS. Finkelstein’s test was not significantly improved in either groups. Ultrasonographic measurement of tendon sheath diameters, the mediolateral (ML), and anteroposterior (AP) diameters was not found to be significantly different in the US Th. group and the laser therapy group after treatment. On comparing both the groups, no statistically significant difference was found. However, looking at the mean values, the grip strength and VAS showed better improvement in the US Th. group as compared to the laser therapy group.
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Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population A cadaveric study p. 549
Jerina Tewari, Pravash Ranjan Mishra, Sujit Kumar Tripathy
Background:Many authors have reported the anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) around the wrist and its association with de Quervain tenosynovitis (DQT), first carpo-metacarpal arthritis, and trapezio-metacarpal subluxation. From Indian subcontinent, there is only one original article and a few case reports on the variability of APL tendon insertion. Materials and Methods: Fifty formaldehyde preserved cadaveric wrists were dissected to look for the anatomical variation of APL in the Indian population. Results: The APL was found with single tendon in 2, double in 31, triple in 8, and quadruple in 8 extremities. A maximum of 6 tendon-slips were found in one cadaveric wrist. In all hands, the APL had at least one attachment tofirst metacarpal bone and in 46 hands (92%), there was second insertion to the trapezium bone. Of all tendon-slips of APL (n = 126), 44% of tendons (68 tendons) were inserted into the base of thefirst metacarpal bone. This was followed by the insertion into the trapezium in 42% tendons (52 tendons). Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to thefirst metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason forfirst carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation.
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Use of tubulization (nerve conduits) in repairing nerve defects in children p. 554
Filippo Maria Sénès, Nunzio Catena, Jacopo Sénès
Background: Direct neurorrhaphy, nerve grafting interposition and neurotization are the options for nerve repair in children, whereas few reports about using nerve conduits (tubulization) are referred to pediatrics in the literature. The authors present their experience about nerve repairing by means of nerve tubes during the developmental age when the harvesting of nerve grafts and also vein grafts of adequate caliber for bridging nerve defects is difficult. A critical review of their case series offers indications for using nerve conduits in pediatrics. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were treated using the nerve tubulization; nine patients were affected by obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) while six were suffering from peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs). Results: In patients suffering from OBPP, we observed 1 good, 3 fair and 5 bad results. In the PNI group, we observed 4 patients who had good results while only 2 had a bad outcome. No fair results were observed. Conclusions: In peripheral nerve repairing in children by using nerve conduits, the outcome has been widely effective even when dealing with mixed and motor nerve, thus nerve tubulization might be considered as an alternative to nerve grafting. Conversely, considering the uncertain result obtained in brachial plexus repairing, the conduits cannot be considered as afirst choice of treatment in brachial plexus reconstruction.
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Evaluation of the ability of natural and synthetic scaffolds in providing an appropriate environment for growth and chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cel p. 561
Mohsen Sheykhhasan, Reza Tabatabaei Qomi, Naser Kalhor, Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Mahdieh Ghiasi
Background: Although progenitor cells have been observed in articular cartilage, this part has a limited ability to repair due to a lack of blood supply. Formerly, tissue engineering was mainly based on collecting chondrocytes from the joint surface, culturing them on resorbable scaffolds such as poly D, L-lactic glycolic acid (PLGA) and then autologous transplantation. In recent times, due to difficulties in collecting chondrocytes, most of the researchers are focused on stem cells for producing these cells. Among the important factors in this approach, is using appropriate scaffolds with good mechanical and biological properties to provide optimal environment for growth and development of stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin glue, PLGA and alginate scaffolds in providing a suitable environment for growth and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence of transforming growth factor-β3. Materials and Methods: Fibrin glue, PLGA and alginate scaffolds were prepared and MSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue. Cells were cultured separately on the scaffolds and 2 weeks after differentiation, chondrogenic genes, cell proliferation ability and morphology in each scaffold were evaluated using real time-polymerase chain reaction, MTT chondrogenic assay and histological examination, respectively. Results: Proliferation of differentiated adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) to chondrogenic cells in Fibrin glue were significantly higher than in other scaffolds. Also, Fibrin glue caused the highest expression of chondrogenic genes compared to the other scaffolds. Histological examination revealed that the pores of the Fibrin glue scaffolds were filled with cells uniformly distributed. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that natural scaffolds such as fibrin can be used as an appropriate environment for cartilage differentiation.
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Total knee arthroplasty in vascular malformation p. 569
Harish Bhende, Nanadkishore Laud, Sandeep Deore, V Shashidhar
In Klippel–Trenaunay syndrome, vascular malformations are not only in skin and superficial soft tissues but also in deep tissues like muscles bones and joints. It is well documemted that these recurrent intraarticular bleeds can cause early arthritis and joint pain. Performing arthroplasty in such patients is difficult and fraught with complications. We describe such a case where navigated total knee arthroplasty was performed with success to avoid the problems of intra medullary alignment used in the presence of intra medullary vascular malformations. We also suggest certain measures when knee arthroplasty is considered in such patients.
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Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome p. 573
Christopher E Gross, Bela J Parekh, Samuel B Adams, Selene G Parekh
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.
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