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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-June 2018
Volume 52 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 217-340

Online since Monday, May 7, 2018

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GUEST EDITORIAL  

Complex hindfoot and ankle trauma: The management status in 2018 Highly accessed article p. 217
Mandeep S Dhillon
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_216_18  
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SYMPOSIUM - HINDFOOT AND ANKLE TRAUMA Top

Calcaneal fractures – Should we or should we not operate? Highly accessed article p. 220
Stefan Rammelt, Bruce J Sangeorzan, Michael P Swords
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_555_17  
The best treatment for displaced, intraarticular fractures of the calcaneum remains controversial. Surgical treatment of these injuries is challenging and have a considerable learning curve. Studies comparing operative with nonoperative treatment including randomized trials and meta-analyses are fraught with a considerable number of confounders including highly variable fracture patterns, soft-tissue conditions, patient characteristics, surgeon experience, limited sensitivity of outcome measures, and rehabilitation protocols. It has become apparent that there is no single treatment that is suitable for all calcaneal fractures. Treatment should be tailored to the individual fracture pathoanatomy, accompanying soft-tissue damage, associated injuries, functional demand, and comorbidities of the patient. If operative treatment is chosen, reconstruction of the overall shape of the calcaneum and joint surfaces are of utmost importance to obtain a good functional result. Despite meticulous reconstruction, primary cartilage damage due to the impact at the time of injury may lead to posttraumatic subtalar arthritis. Even if subtalar fusion becomes necessary, patients benefit from primary anatomical reconstruction of the hindfoot geometry because in situ fusion is easier to perform and associated with better results than corrective fusion for hindfoot deformities in malunited calcaneal fractures. To minimize wound healing problems and stiffness due to scar formation after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) through extensile approaches several percutaneous and less invasive procedures through a direct approach over the sinus tarsi have successfully lowered the rates of infections and wound complications while ensuring exact anatomic reduction. There is evidence from multiple studies that malunited displaced calcaneal fractures result in painful arthritis and disabling, three-dimensional foot deformities for the affected patients. The poorest treatment results are reported after open surgical treatment that failed to achieve anatomic reconstruction of the calcaneum and its joints, thus combining the disadvantages of operative and nonoperative treatment. The crucial question, therefore, is not only whether to operate or not but also when and how to operate on calcaneal fractures if surgery is decided.
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The “Open-Envelope” Approach: A limited open approach for calcaneal fracture fixation p. 231
Sharad Prabhakar, Mandeep S Dhillon, Ankit Khurana, Rakesh John
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_576_17  
Background: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has a significant and evolving role in the treatment of displaced intra articular calcaneal fractures (DIACFs), but there is limited literature on this subject. The objective was hence to assess the clinicoradiological outcomes of DIACFs fixed with an innovative open-envelope MIS technique. Materials and Methods: 42 closed Sanders Type 2 and 3; DIACFs were included in this study. The Open-envelope approach was developed, which is essentially a limited open, dual incision, modified posterior longitudinal approach allowing excellent visualisation and direct fragment manipulation. The main outcome measures were American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) hindfoot score and preoperative and postoperative radiological angles. Results: The Bohler angle improved from a preoperative mean of 14.3° (range 0°–28°) to a postoperative mean of 32.46° (range 22°–42°). The Gissane angle improved from a preoperative mean of 135.83° to a postoperative mean of 128.33°. The postoperative improvement in Bohler and Gissane angles was highly significant (P < 0.001). The AOFAS scores at 6 months were excellent in nine patients, good in 15 patients, and fair in six patients. Three patients had residual valgus deformity of the heel. Conclusions: Open-envelope technique minimized soft tissue complications and achieved acceptable radiological reductions with good clinical outcomes.
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The posterolateral approach for calcaneal fractures p. 239
Dror Lakstein, Alexander Bermant, Evgeny Shoihetman, David Hendel, Zeev Feldbrin
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_545_16  
Background: Conventionally, the extended lateral approach (ELA) served as the standard extensile approach for intraarticular calcaneal fracture fixation. However, this approach has a high rate of wound complications. The purpose of this study was to describe an alternative approach, the posteriorlateral approach (PLA) and compare it to the ELA regarding soft tissue complications and functional outcome. Materials and Methods: 32 patients operated through PLA and 66 patients treated through ELA were included in this retrospective study. Major and minor soft tissue complications up to 3 months postoperatively were recorded. Eighteen patients of the PLA group and 32 patients of the ELA group were available for 1-year functional outcome assessment with the American Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS) score. Results: The PLA group had no major complications requiring surgical intervention. Six patients (19%) had minor wound complications. The ELA group had 8 (12%) major complications and 9 (14%) minor complications. There were no significant differences in AOFAS scores at 1-year followup. PLA is a safe and efficient approach for open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Conclusion: In selected cases when fracture comminution and displacement may not be adequately treated through a less invasive approach, it is a good alternative with less concern about wound complications as in ELA.
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Crush fractures of the anterior end of calcaneum p. 244
Mandeep Dhillon, Ankit Khurana, Sharad Prabhakar, Siddharth Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_575_17  
The anterior end of calcaneum fractures can present as inversion injuries, stress fractures or as a part of displaced intraarticular calcaneum fracture. Rarely, these may occur due to abduction injury from a laterally directed force that crushes the anterior calcaneum instead of the cuboid, and has associated medial column injuries which are unrecognized. Compression fractures of the anterior calcaneum are actually lateral column shortening injuries with poor outcomes in the few published reports. We describe three patients with compression fractures of the anterior end of calcaneum resulting from foot abduction injury which were managed by reduction and column length restoration via distraction by external fixator. All three fractures showed good to excellent outcomes using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society midfoot score at followup >1 year. Awareness of this injury pattern is important, and appropriate measures to reduce and maintain the fracture reduction are needed to avoid long term disability.
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Plate fixation of talus fractures: Where, when, and how? p. 253
Michael Swords, Harrison Lakehomer, Michael McDonald, Jay Patel
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_645_17  
Talus fractures are rare orthopedic injuries. Surgical fixation is challenging for treating surgeons. The clear majority of fractures require operative treatment. The indication and use of plates in fixation of talus fractures are reviewed. Specific applications including fractures of the lateral process, posterior fractures, extreme comminution, bone grafting, and spring plating to hold key segments are reviewed in this article.
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Management of talar body fractures p. 258
SR Sundararajan, Abdul Azeem Badurudeen, R Ramakanth, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_563_17  
Fractures of talar body are uncommon injuries often associated with fractures of other long bones and in polytraumatized patients. The integrity of the talus is essential for the normal function of the ankle, subtalar, and midtarsal joints. The relative infrequency of this injury limits the number of studies available to guide treatment. They occur as a result of high-velocity trauma and are therefore associated with considerable soft tissue damage. Axial compression with supination or pronation is the common mechanism of injury. Great care is necessary for diagnosing and treating these injuries. Clinically, talar body fractures present with soft tissue swelling, hematoma, deformity, and restriction of motion. Associated neurovascular injury of the foot should be carefully examined. The initial evaluation should be done with foot, and ankle radiographs and computed tomography is often done to analyze the extent of the fracture, displacement, intraarticular extension, comminution, and associated fractures. Differentiating talar neck from body fractures is important. Optimal treatment relies on an accurate understanding of the injury and the goals of treatment are the restoration of articular surface and axial alignment. Indications for nonoperative management are seldom indicated and are few as in nonambulatory patients, or in with multiple comorbidities who are not able to tolerate surgery. Splinting, followed by short leg casting for 6 weeks until fracture union should be undertaken. Surgery is indicated in most of the cases, and different approaches have been described. Sometimes, a dual approach with a malleolar osteotomy is necessary for articular restoration. Clinical outcomes depend on the severity of the initial injury and the quality of reduction and internal fixation. The various complications are avascular necrosis, malunion, infections, late osteoarthritis, and ankylosis of subtalar joint.
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Surgical treatment of posteromedial talus fractures: Technique description and results of 10 cases p. 269
Michael Swords, John Shank, Stephen Benirschke
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_646_17  
Background: The aim of this study is to describe a surgical technique for successful treatment of posteromedial talar body fractures and establish treatment recommendations for fractures of the posterior aspect of the talus. Materials and Methods: Ten patients treated operatively for a posteromedial talar body fractures entering both the subtalar and ankle articulations with a minimum of 1-year followup were identified from a trauma database. Age, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, time to surgery, complications, the range of motion, secondary procedures, and need for arthrodesis were evaluated. Results: Followup averaged 4.8 years (1–10). Eight of ten patients had high-energy mechanisms of injury. Six patients had associated medial subtalar dislocations with two open. Associated injuries were common. No surgical complications occurred. The range of motion was present but decreased. No arthrodesis procedures were performed. Conclusions: Operative fixation of posteromedial talus fractures with the described surgical technique resulted in acceptable outcomes in this series of patients with improved outcomes when compared to prior reports in the literature.
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Talar body reconstruction for nonunions and malunions p. 276
Marcos Hideyo Sakaki, Rodrigo Sousa Macedo, Alexandre Leme Godoy Dos Santos, Rafael Trevisan Ortiz, Rafael Barban Sposeto, Túlio Diniz Fernandes
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_423_17  
Background: Talar body and neck nonunions and malunions may undergo a reconstructive surgery when joint cartilage is still viable, and no talar collapse or infection has occurred. This is a rare condition and the studies supporting the procedure have small number of cases. The objective of the present study is to report a case series of six patients who underwent talar reconstructions. Materials and Methods: Six patients with talar malunions or nonunions who underwent surgical treatment were reviewed in this retrospective study. There were three nonunions and two malunions of the talar body and one malunion of the talar neck. Clinical evaluation included all the parameters used in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale. Arthritic degeneration of the ankle joint was assessed according to a modified Bargon scale. Results: The mean followup was 86 months (range 24-282 months). There were no cases of postoperative avascular necrosis of the talus. Four of the six patients in our series required a subtalar fusion as part of the reconstruction procedure. The average preoperative AOFAS hindfoot score was 34, and at the time of the last evaluation, it was 74. The mean preoperative score on the modified Bargon scale for the tibiotalar joint was 1.17. At the last followup, it rose to 1.33. Three different deformities of the talus were identified (a) flattening of the talus (b) extra-articular step and (c) intraarticular step. Conclusion: Reconstruction of talar nonunions and malunions improved function in selected patients with a low risk of complications. Three different anatomical patterns of talar nonunions and malunions were identified.
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Management options in avascular necrosis of talus p. 284
Mandeep S Dhillon, Balvinder Rana, Inayat Panda, Sandeep Patel, Prasoon Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_608_17  
Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the talus can be a cause of significant disability and is a difficult problem to treat. The most common cause is a fracture of the talus. We have done a systematic review of the literature with the following aims: (1) identify and summarize the available evidence in literature for the treatment of talar AVN, (2) define the usefulness of radiological Hawkins sign and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis, and (3) provide patient management guidelines. We searched MEDLINE and PUBMED using keywords and MESH terminology. The articles' abstracts were read by two of the authors. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of the 335 abstracts screened. The interventions of interest included hindfoot fusion, conservative measures, bone grafting, vascularized bone graft, core decompression, and talar replacement. All studies were of Level IV evidence. We looked to identify the study quality, imprecise and sparse data, reporting bias, and the quality of evidence. Based on the analysis of available literature, we make certain recommendations for managing patients of AVN talus depending on identified disease factors such as early or late presentation, extent of bone involvement, bone collapse, and presence or absence of arthritis. Early talar AVN seems best treated with protected weight bearing and possibly in combination with extracorporeal shock wave therapy. If that fails, core decompression can be considered. Arthrodesis should be saved as a salvage procedure in late cases with arthritis and collapse, and a tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with bone grafting may be needed in cases of significant bone loss. Role of vascularized bone grafting is still not defined clearly and needs further investigation. Future prospective, randomized studies are necessary to guide the conservative and surgical management of talar AVN.
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Cuboid injuries p. 297
Ippokratis Pountos, Michalis Panteli, Peter V Giannoudis
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_610_17  
Cuboid fractures are rare injuries. A number of different treatment methods have been proposed including plaster immobilization, open reduction, and internal fixation or external fixation. Bone grafting is commonly used to restore bony length. The majority of the current literature suggests that the loss of length of the lateral column and articular congruency are the two criteria opting for the surgical management of these fractures. Nevertheless, the exact indications and ideal management of these fractures are not established mainly due to the rarity of these injuries and the paucity of literature.
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Arthroscopic and endoscopic management of posttraumatic hindfoot stiffness p. 304
Tun Hing Lui
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_337_17  
Ankle, hindfoot, and toe stiffness can result from hindfoot trauma. It can be due to capsular fibrosis, tendon adhesion, muscle fibrosis, or malunion. For symptomatic stiffness that is resistant to nonoperative treatment, operative treatment should be considered. It is important to tackle the sources of stiffness, and careful preoperative clinical assessment is the key for proper formulation of the surgical plan. Whenever possible, arthroscopic/endoscopic surgery is preferable to open surgery because less extensive dissection and small surgical incisions allow immediate vigorous mobilization of the foot and ankle.
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Posterior malleolus fractures in trimalleolar ankle fractures: Malleolus versus transyndesmal fixation p. 309
Bilgehan Tosun, Ozgur Selek, Umit Gok, Halil Ceylan
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_308_16  
Background: In ankle fractures involving the posterior malleolus, the issue of which types of fractures require posterior malleolus fixation is still controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated that trimalleolar fractures adversely affect the functional outcomes in comparison to bimalleolar fractures of the lateral and medial malleolus. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of posterior malleolus fixation on the functional and radiological outcomes. Materials and Methods: Reduction quality, development of posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis, and functional outcomes in 49 consecutive trimalleolar ankle fractures were evaluated retrospectively in patients with and without posterior malleolus fixation. Group I consisted of 29 patients, in which posterior malleolar fracture was left untreated. Twenty patients in Group II, posterior malleolar fragment was fixed directly by screws alone or plate screw. Twenty-one of these 49 patients were male (43%). The mean age was 47 years (range 20-82 years). Results: The mean followup was 12 to 51 months with a mean of 15 months (range 12-51 months). Statistically significant differences were found between Group I and Group II in terms of ankle arthrosis. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly lower in Group I compared to Groups II. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that posterior malleolar fracture fixation is closely related to successful radiological and functional outcomes after trimalleolar fractures. Transyndesmal screw fixation may not be needed in the cases where the posterior malleolar fracture fixated. For these reasons, we recommend that all posterior malleolar fractures have to be fixed regardless of size.
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A modified broström repair with transosseous fixation for chronic ankle instability: A midterm followup study in soldiers p. 315
Pei-Wei Weng, Chih-Yu Chen, Yang-Hwei Tsuang, Jui-Sheng Sun, Chian-Her Lee, Cheng-Kung Cheng
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_265_16  
Background: Various surgical techniques are available to reduce chronic instability of the lateral ankle ligament complex. The most effective method for these procedures remains controversial. This report presents a surgical technique that is similar to the Broström procedure and uses a modified, nonaugmented repair technique. Materials and Methods: 38 soldiers with a history of chronic lateral ankle instability and poor ankle function underwent plication of the anterior talofibular ligament-lateral capsule complex with transosseous fixation of the calcaneofibular ligament through a fibular bone tunnel between 2004 and 2007. This study included 33 men and 5 women with a mean age of 25.6 years (range 18–36 years) at the time of surgery. Each patient was confirmed to have a history of chronic lateral ankle instability after an inversion injury, and symptoms had been noted for at least 1 year. The patients were followed up with stress radiographs, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot functional score, and the Sefton assessment system. The mean followup period was 77.6 months (range 66-89 months). Results: At the last evaluation, the talar tilt reduced from an average of 13.9° ± 2.4° before surgery to 3.8° ± 1.8° after surgery, and anterior drawer displacement reduced from 9.6 ± 2.9 mm to 2.3 ± 1.6 mm. The mean AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale score for functional stability increased from 71.6 ± 4.0 points preoperatively to 95.6 ± 4.0 points postoperatively. As evaluated by the Sefton assessment system, 36 patients (95%) reported an excellent or good functional outcome. All patients resumed normal daily activities and active military duty after the surgery. Conclusion: The procedure described here could be considered a viable alternative option to anatomic reconstruction such as the modified Broström procedure and might be appropriate for the general population.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Screw intramedullary elastic nail fixation in midshaft clavicle fractures: A clinical outcome in 36 patients p. 322
Wasudeo Mahadeo Gadegone, Vijayanand Lokhande
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_381_16  
Background: Surgical stabilization of displaced midshaft clavicle fracture can be achieved by an intramedullary nail or plate. When intramedullary nail is used, one of the dreaded complications is the migration of nail. We have used a screw intramedullary device with screw mechanism at one end which can get hold in the medial cancellous bone, thus preventing chances of nail migration. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical outcome following elastic stable screw intramedullary nailing for the fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures. Materials and Methods: 36 patients of midshaft clavicular fractures, who met inclusion criteria, were included in this retrospective study. There were 28 males and 8 females. The mean age was 36.6 years. Twenty one patients were managed by close reduction and fixation with screw intramedullary nail. Fifteen patients required mini-open reduction. Followup examination was done at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months using patient's subjective evaluation, functional outcome, radiographic assessment, and other complications. Results: Union was achieved at average of 11.6 weeks in 31 cases and five patients went to delayed union. The average followup was 6 months. The average constant score was 90%. Three patients had medial nail protrusion which required early removal after union. Conclusion: Screw intramedullary nail is a safe, minimally invasive surgical technique with a lower complication rate, faster return to daily activities, excellent cosmetic and good functional results, and can be used as an equally effective alternative to plate fixation in displaced midshaft clavicle fractures.
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The use of tubular retractors for translaminar discectomy for cranially and caudally extruded discs p. 328
Arvind G Kulkarni, Shashidhar Bangalore Kantharajanna, Abhilash N Dhruv
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_364_16  
Background: The conventional interlaminar approach is adequate for access to most disc herniations in lumbar spine surgery. The access to cranially and caudally migrated disc fragments, by conventional interlaminar fenestration, requires an extension of the fenestration with the potential destruction of the facet joint complex and consequent postsurgical instability. To describe the technique and results of the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy using tubular retractors for the surgical treatment of cranially and caudally extruded discs. Materials and Methods: The study period extended from January 2008 to December 2014. All patients with lumbar herniated discs who failed conservative management were selected for surgery and underwent routine erect radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine. The patients with cranially or caudally migrated discs were included in this study. The technique involves approaching migrated disc through an oval window (sculpted through an 18 mm tubular retractor using a burr) in the lamina precisely over the location of the migrated disc as predicted by the preoperative MRI (inferior lamina for inferior migration and superior lamina for superior migration). The perioperative parameters studied were operative time, blood loss, complications, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and visual analog scale (VAS) for leg pain before surgery and at last followup. In the study, 4 patients underwent a postoperative computed tomography-scan with a three-dimensional reconstruction to visualize the oval window and to rule out any pars fracture. All technical difficulties and complications were analyzed. Results: 17 patients in the age group of 41–58 years underwent the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy. The migration of disc was cranial in 12 patients and caudal in 5 patients. Fourteen of the affected discs were at the L4–L5 level and three were at the L5-S1 level. The mean VAS (leg pain) scale improved from 8 to 1 and the mean ODI changed from 59.8 to 23.6. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications encountered in this study. Furthermore, no patient in the present study required a conventional laminotomy or medial facetectomy. There was no evidence of iatrogenic pars injury or instability at the last followup. There were no recurrences till the last followup. Conclusions: The targeted translaminar approach preserves structures important for segmental spinal stability thus causing minimal anatomical disruption. This approach allows access to the extruded disc fragment and intervertebral disc space comparable to classical approaches.
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CASE REPORT Top

Combined ipsilateral fracture of the tibial pilon, talar body, and calcaneus: Outcome at 4 years p. 334
Henriette Bretschneider, Stefan Rammelt
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_412_17  
Combined fractures of the talar body and the adjacent bones are rare. We present a case of a 35-year-old male with a complex foot and ankle trauma resulting in an unusual combined ipsilateral fracture of the anterolateral tibial plafond, talar body, and sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus. To the best of our knowledge, this particular combination of fractures has not yet been reported in the literature. The combination of talar body fracture with fractures of the adjacent bones was treated by a bilateral open reduction with anatomic reconstruction of the joint surfaces resulting in an excellent clinical outcome at 4-year followup.
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PROFILE Top

Legends of Indian orthopedics: Prof. B Mukhopadhaya p. 339
DK Taneja, Bhavuk Garg
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_227_18  
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