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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-June 2016
Volume 50 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 227-338

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Trauma surgery – What is new in it? p. 227
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan Ul Haq
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Results of arthrospine assisted percutaneous technique for lumbar discectomy p. 228
Mohinder Kaushal
Background: Avaialable minimal invasive arthro/endoscopic techniques are not compatible with 30 degree arthroscope which orthopedic surgeons uses in knee and shoulder arthroscopy. Minimally invasive “Arthrospine assisted percutaneous technique for lumbar discectomy” is an attempt to allow standard familiar microsurgical discectomy and decompression to be performed using 30° arthroscope used in knee and shoulder arthroscopy with conventional micro discectomy instruments. Materials and Methods: 150 patients suffering from lumbar disc herniations were operated between January 2004 and December 2012 by indiginously designed Arthrospine system and were evaluated retrospectively. In lumbar discectomy group, there were 85 males and 65 females aged between 18 and 72 years (mean, 38.4 years). The delay between onset of symptoms to surgery was between 3 months to 7 years. Levels operated upon included L1-L2 (n = 3), L2-L3 (n = 2), L3-L4 (n = 8), L4-L5 (n = 90), and L5-S1 (n = 47). Ninety patients had radiculopathy on right side and 60 on left side. There were 22 central, 88 paracentral, 12 contained, 3 extraforaminal, and 25 sequestrated herniations. Standard protocol of preoperative blood tests, x-ray LS Spine and pre operative MRI and pre anaesthetic evaluation for anaesthesia was done in all cases. Technique comprised localization of symptomatic level followed by percutaneous dilatation and insertion of a newly devised arthrospine system devise over a dilator through a 15 mm skin and fascial incision. Arthro/endoscopic discectomy was then carried out by 30° arthroscope and conventional disc surgery instruments. Results: Based on modified Macnab's criteria, of 150 patients operated for lumbar discectomy, 136 (90%) patients had excellent to good, 12 (8%) had fair, and 2 patients (1.3%) had poor results. The complications observed were discitis in 3 patients (2%), dural tear in 4 patients (2.6%), and nerve root injury in 2 patients (1.3%). About 90% patients were able to return to light and sedentary work with an average delay of 2 weeks and normal physical activities after 2 months. Conclusion: Arthrospine system is compatible with 30° arthroscope and conventional micro-discectomy instruments. Technique minimizes approach related morbidity and provides minimal access corridor for lumbar discectomy.
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Lumbar disc herniation: Is there an association between histological and magnetic resonance imaging findings? p. 234
Shiju A Majeed, N Arun Kumar Seshadrinath, Kavitha Ravi Binoy, Laila Raji
Background: Although validated radiological scoring systems and histological scoring system of surgically removed degenerated disc are used in assessment of progression of intervertebral disc degeneration, there have not been many studies that integrate these two aspects of assessments. The data available in this respect are very limited. This clinical study was designed to find the correlation between quantitative radiological score (Pfirmann grading system and Modic changes [MC]) and quantitative histological degeneration score (HDS). Materials and Methods: A cohort of 77 patients (45 males, 32 females; mean age of 38 years [range 18–58 years]) who presented with complaints of discogenic pain or radiculopathy at single level were assessed radiologically. They were graded according to the radiological pattern. The surgically excised disc specimen was graded according to HDS. The degree of radiological changes were correlated with the degree of histological changes. Results: Though the overall HDS (0–15) did not show statistically significant correlation with Pfirmann grading system, there were positive association found between mucoid degeneration, chondrocyte proliferation with the Pfirmann grading and mucoid degeneration, which were statistically significant. Female sex also had a higher association with instability pattern. Conclusion: The study shows that the Pfirmann grading system, MCs and HDS can reliably be used as scoring systems for assessing lumbar disc degeneration. The radiological assessment can be used as a noninvasive tool to assess the probable change in content rather than the microstructure of a disc undergoing degeneration.
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A comparative study of pedicle screw fixation in dorsolumbar spine by freehand versus image-assisted technique: A cadaveric study p. 243
Archit Agarwal, Vijendra Chauhan, Deepa Singh, Raghuvanshi Shailendra, Rajesh Maheshwari, Anil Juyal
Background: New and expensive technology such as three-dimensional computer assisted surgery is being used for pedicle screw fixation in dorsolumbar spine. Their availability, expenses and amount of radiation exposure are issues in a developing country. On the contrary, freehand technique of pedicle screw placement utilizes anatomic landmarks and tactile palpation without fluoroscopy or navigation to place pedicle screws. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the accuracy of freehand and image-assisted technique to place pedicle screws in the dorsolumbar spine of cadavers by an experienced surgeon and a resident. Evaluation was done using dissection of pedicle and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Materials and Methods: Ten cadaveric dorsolumbar spines were exposed by a posterior approach. Titanium pedicle screws were inserted from D5 to L5 vertebrae by freehand and image-assisted technique on either side by an experienced surgeon and a resident. CT was obtained. A blinded radiologist reviewed the imaging. The spines were then dissected to do a macroscopic examination. Screws, having evidence of cortical perforation of more than 2 mm on CT, were considered to be a significant breach. Results: A total of 260 pedicle screws were placed. The surgeon and the resident placed 130 screws each. Out of 130 screws, both of them placed 65 screws each by freehand and image- assisted technique each. The resident had a rate of 7.69% significant medial and 10.76% significant lateral breach with freehand technique while with image-assisted had a rate of 3.07% significant medial and 9.23% significant lateral breach. The expert surgeon had a rate of 6.15% significant medial and 1.53% significant lateral breach with freehand technique while with image-assisted had a rate of 3.07% significant medial and 6.15% significant lateral breach on CT evaluation. Conclusion: Freehand technique is as good as the image-assisted technique. Under appropriate supervision, residents can safely learn to place freehand pedicle screws with an acceptable violation rate.
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Minimally invasive surgery under fluoro-navigation for anterior pelvic ring fractures p. 250
Kai-Hua Zhou, Cong-Feng Luo, Nong Chen, Cheng-Fang Hu, Fu-Gen Pan
Background: The incidence of pelvic fractures in trauma patients is reported to be 3-8.2%, with roughly half of these fractures being caused by high energy injuries with a potential for catastrophic hemorrhage and death. Indications for internal fixation of anterior pelvic ring are controversial. Because of fears of disturbing the pelvic hematoma and causing additional hemorrhage, open reduction and internal fixation of pelvic ring disruption is routinely delayed. In contrast to conventional surgery, percutaneous screw fixation is gaining popularity in the treatment of pelvic and acetabular fractures mainly because of minimal soft tissue damage, less operative blood loss, early surgical intervention and comfortable mobilization of the patient. Fluoro-navigation is a new surgical technique in orthopedic trauma surgery. This study is to investigate clinical results of fluoro-navigation surgery in anterior pelvic ring fractures. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to October 2011, 23 patients with anterior pelvic ring fractures were treated with percutaneous cannulated screw under fluoro-navigation. There were 14 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 40.1 years (range 25-55). According to the AO and Orthopedic Trauma Association classification, there were seven A 2.1, two A 2.2, one A 2.3, six B 1.2, one B 2.1: 1, one B 2.2, one C 1.2, two C 1.3 and two C 2.3 types of fractures. Amongst these patients, 13 had posterior pelvic ring injuries, 8 had other injuries including urethral, lumbar vertebrae fractures and femoral fractures. All patients were operated when their general condition stabilized after emergency management. The mean time from injury to percutaneous screw fixation of the anterior pelvic ring fracture was 12 days (3-15 days). All the anterior ring fractures were fixed with cannulated screws by two senior surgeons. They were familiar with the navigation system and had gained much experience in the computer-assisted percutaneous placement of screws. Results: A total of 32 screws were inserted, including 19 in the pubic ramis and 13 in the anterior acetabular columns. The average surgical time was 23.3 min/screw. The average time of X-ray exposure was 19.1 ± 2.5 s/screw. The virtual images of fluoro-navigation were compared with real-time X-rays during and after the surgery. Compared to the final position of the screw, the average deviated distance was 3.11 mm and the average trajectory difference was 2.81°. Blood loss during the operation was minimal (22.3 ml/screw). One screw (3.1%) deviated out of the fracture site during the operation. No superficial or deep infection occurred. No patient sustained recognized neurologic, vascular, or urologic injury as a result of the percutaneous screw fixation. All fractures united at the last followup. Conclusions: Fluoro-navigation technique could become a safe, accurate, and fairly quick method for the treatment of anterior pelvic ring fractures. Standardization of the operative procedure and training are mandatory for the success of this procedure.
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Midterm results of 36 mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty p. 256
Hawar Akrawi, Fahad S Hossain, Stefan Niculescu, Zaid Hashim, Arron Biing Ng, Ajit Shetty
Background: Despite the many perceived benefits of metal-on-metal (MoM) articulation in total hip arthroplasty (THA), there have been growing concerns about metallosis and adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Analysis of size 36 mm MoM articulation THAs is presented. These patients were evaluated for patient characteristics, relationship between blood metal ions levels and the inclination as well as the version of acetabular component, cumulative survival probability at final followup and functional outcome at final followup. Materials and Methods: 288, size 36 mm MoM THAs implanted in 269 patients at our institution from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective study. These patients were assessed clinically for hip symptoms, perioperative complications and causes of revision arthroplasty were analysed. Biochemically, blood cobalt and chromium metal ions level were recorded and measurements of acetabular inclination and version were examined. Radiological evaluation utilizing Metal Artefact Reduction Sequence (MARS) MRI was undertaken and implant cumulative survivorship was evaluated. Results: The mean followup was 5 years (range 2–7 years), mean age was 73 years and the mean Oxford hip score was 36.9 (range 5–48). Revision arthroplasty was executed in 20 (7.4%) patients, of which 15 patients underwent single-stage revision THA. The causes of revision arthroplasty were: ARMD changes in 6 (2.2%) patients, infection in 5 (1.9%) patients and aseptic loosening in 5 (1.9%) patients. Three (1.1%) patients had their hips revised for instability, 1 (0.3%) for raised blood metal ions levels. The implant cumulative survival rate, with revision for any reason, was 68.9% at 7 years. Conclusions: Although medium-sized MoM THA with a 36 mm head has a marginally better survivorship at midterm followup, compared to larger size head MoM articulating THA, our findings nonetheless are still worryingly poor in comparison to what has been quoted in the literature. Furthermore, ARMD-related revision remains the predominant cause of failure in this cohort with medium-sized MoM articulation. No correlation was found between blood metal ions levels and the inclination as well as the version of acetabular component.
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Arthroscopic-assisted repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex foveal avulsion in distal radioulnar joint injury p. 263
Sung Jong Woo, Midum Jegal, Min Jong Park
Background: Disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) foveal insertion can lead to distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability accompanied by ulnar-sided pain, weakness, snapping, and limited forearm rotation. We investigated the clinical outcomes of patients with TFCC foveal tears treated with arthroscopic-assisted repair. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients underwent foveal repair of avulsed TFCC with the assistance of arthroscopy between 2011 and 2013. These patients were followed up for an average of 19 months (range 14–25 months). The avulsed TFCC were reattached to the fovea using a transosseous pull-out suture or a knotless suture anchor. At the final followup, the range of motion, grip strength and DRUJ stability were measured as objective outcomes. Subjective outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH score) and return to work. Results: Based on the DRUJ stress test, 5 patients had normal stability and 7 patients showed mild laxity as compared with the contralateral side. Postoperatively, the mean range of pronation supination increased from 141° to 166°, and the mean VAS score for pain decreased from 5.3 to 1.7 significantly. The PRWE and DASH questionnaires also showed significant functional improvement. All patients were able to return to their jobs. However, two patients complained of persistent pain. Conclusions: Arthroscopically assisted repair of TFCC foveal injury can provide significant pain relief, functional improvement and restoration of DRUJ stability.
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Assessment of the geometry of proximal femur for short cephalomedullary nail placement: An observational study in dry femora and living subjects p. 269
Devendra Pathrot, Rehan Ul Haq, Aditya N Aggarwal, Mahindra Nagar, Shuchi Bhatt
Background: Intramedullary devices have increasingly become popular and are widely used for fixation of unstable intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. These implants have been designed taking into consideration of the anthropometry of the western population which varies from those of other ethnic groups. This study was carried out to assess the geometry of proximal femur for the placement of short cephalomedullary nails in our subset of patients and suggest suitable design modifications based on these parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the following three groups: (1) Anthropometric study of 101 adult human dry femora, (2) radiographs of the same femora, and (3) radiographs of the contralateral uninjured limb of 102 patients with intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures. In Group 1, standard anthropometric techniques were used to measure neck shaft angle (NSA), minimal neck width (NW), trochanteric offset, and distance from the tip of greater trochanter (GT) to the lower border of lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance X). In Group 2 and 3, the NSA, minimal NW, NW at 130° and 135°, trochanteric shaft angle (TSA), trochanteric offset, distance X, distance between the tip of GT and the point where the neck axis crosses the line joining the tip of the GT to the lower border of the lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance Y), and canal width at 10, 15, and 20 cm from tip of GT were measured on standard radiographs. The values obtained in these three groups were pooled to obtain mean values. Various parameters of commonly used short cephalomedullary nails available for fixation of pertrochanteric fractures were obtained. These were compared to the results obtained to suggest suitable modifications in the nail designs for our subset of patients. Results: The mean parameters observed were as follows: NSA 128.07° ± 4.97 (range 107°–141°), minimum NW 29.0 ± 2.8 mm (range 22–42 mm), NW at 130° 30.12 ± 2.86 mm (range 22.2–42.5 mm), NW at 135° 30.66 ± 3.02 mm (range 22.8–40.3 mm), TSA 10.45° ± 2.34° (range 3°–15.5°), distance X 65.73 ± 6.45 mm (range 28.6–88.4 mm), distance Y 38 ± 4.91 mm (range 16.6–55.3 mm), and canal width at 10, 15, and 20 cm from the tip of GT 13.46 ± 2.34 mm, 11.40 ± 2.27 mm, and 11.64 ± 2.04 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The measurements of the proximal femur are not significantly different from other ethnic groups and are adequate to accept the current commonly available short cephalomedullary nails. However, certain modifications in the presently available short cephalomedullary nail designs are recommended for them to better fit the anatomy of our subset of population (a) two nails of 125° and 135°, (b) the medio-lateral angle at the level of 65 mm from the tip of the nail, (c) two femoral neck screw placements (35 and 45 mm from the tip of the nail), and (d) five different sizes of distal width for better fit in canal (9–13 mm).
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Comparison of intramedullary nail and plating in treatment of diaphyseal tibial fractures with intact fibulae: A randomized controlled trial p. 277
Alireza Saied, Mohsen Ostovar, Alia Ayatollahi Mousavi, Fateme Arabnejhad
Background: Tibial fracture without concomitant fibular fracture is an injury that has long attracted notice for the fact that it sometimes heals cleanly, other times causes various problems when the bone does not heal, or misaligns. In this randomized clinical trial, we assessed two treatment modalities plating and intramedullary nailing for treatment of closed, noncomminuted tibial fractures with intact fibulae. Materials and Methods: During the three year period, 1470 patients with leg fractures were treated and out of which, 114 were eligible to enter the study. Of the eligible patients, 73 were recruited to enter the trial, and ultimately 69 of these were followed for at least one year. The patients were randomized into two groups, one of which was treated by plating of the fracture, the other group by intramedullary nailing, both of which are standard surgical procedures. The primary variables that influenced the outcome of the procedures in both treatments were the duration of surgery, the amount of bleeding, the time to union, the need to repeat surgery to achieve union, the need to remove a device, and patients' complaints about pain or discomfort in the limb. Results: One case of nonunion occurred in the group treated with intramedullary nailing and one of the patients in this group developed late, deep infection in the screws location, which was resolved by screw removal (P = 0.285 and P = 0.478, respectively). In both groups the tibial fractures achieved union in about 4 months, though the intramedullary group underwent more operations to achieve union (dynamization was performed in 4 patients, representing 12.1% of the patients in this group, P = 0.047). During the followup period, the incidence of implant removal (after union) was not statistically significant between the two groups: two patients (6.1%) in the intramedullary group and four patients (11.1%) in the plate group (P = 0.675) had implants removed. Of the other studied variables, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant only with regard to patients' complaints of pain in the limb and the number of individuals with knee pain (in both cases, P = 0.001). In the intramedullary group, 18 patients had no complaints (54.4%) and 13 complained of knee pain (39.4%), while in the plate group 29 had no complaints (80.6%). Conclusion: Based upon the findings of the present study, both the methods studied are suitable treatments for closed noncomminuted isolated tibial fractures, but the patients in whom intramedullary nails are used are more likely to require additional surgeries to achieve union, and probably will have more complaints of pain in their limbs or knees.
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Locked META intramedullary nailing fixation for tibial fractures via a suprapatellar approach p. 283
Beigang Fu
Background: Intramedullary nailing is an effective approach for treatment of diaphyseal tibial fractures. However, infrapatellar intramedullary nailing can easily cause angulation and rotation displacement at the fracture ends and increase risk of postoperative infection. Intramedullary nailing via the suprapatellar approach was proved with good reduction and fixation. We used locked intramedullary nailing for the treatment of tibial fractures via a suprapatellar approach in this study. Materials and Methods: 23 patients undergoing tibial fractures fixation by locked META intramedullary nailing via a suprapatellar approach were enrolled between June 2012 and October 2013. There were 18 males and 5 females. The average age was 35.5 years (range 18-60 years). The intraoperative data including operative time and blood loss and postoperative data consisting of hospital stays, fluoroscopy time, fracture healing time and complications were all recorded. Results: The average operative time, blood loss, fluoroscopy time and hospital stay were 78.2 ± 9.1 min, 90.4 ± 23.4 mL, 38.5 ± 6.5 s and 11 ± 3.4 days respectively. The mean followup period in all the patients was 15.5 months. Callus appeared in the patients at average 8 weeks after surgery. The mean knee and ankle range of motion were significantly improved at the last followup (P < 0.05). The average Hospital for Special Surgery and Olerud–Molander scores was 92 ± 4.3 points and 93.6 ± 3.9 points, respectively. No complications were observed. Conclusion: Locked META intramedullary nail fixation via a suprapatellar approach is safe and effective for patients suffering from tibial fractures and earlier functional recovery.
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Management of traumatic tibial diaphyseal bone defect by “induced-membrane technique” p. 290
Gaurav Gupta, Sohail Ahmad, Mohd. Zahid , AH Khan, M K A Sherwani, Abdul Qayyum Khan
Background: Gap nonunion of long bones is a challenging problem, due to the limitation of conventional reconstructive techniques more so if associated with infection and soft tissue defect. Treatment options such as autograft with non-vascularized fibula and cancellous bone graft, vascularized bone graft, and bone transportation are highly demanding on the part of surgeons and hospital setups and have many drawbacks. This study aims to analyze the outcome of patients with wide diaphyseal bone gap treated with induced-membrane technique (Masquelet technique).Materials and Methods: This study included 9 patients (7 males and 2 females), all with tibial bone-gap. Eight of the 9 patients were infected and in 3 patients there was associated large soft tissue defect requiring flap cover. This technique is two-stage procedure. Stage I surgery included debridement, fracture stabilization, application of spacer between bone ends, and soft tissue reconstruction. Stage II surgery included removal of spacer with preservation of induced membrane formed at spacer surface and filling the bone-gap with morselized iliac crest bone-graft within the membrane sleeve. Average bone-gap of 5.2 cm was treated. The spacer was always found to be encapsulated by a thick glistening membrane which did not collapse after its removal. All patients were followed up for an average period of 21.5 months. Results: Serial Radiographs showed regular uptake of autograft and thus consolidation within themselves in the region of bone gap and also with host bone. Bone-union was documented in all patients and all patients are walking full weight-bearing without support. Conclusions: The study highlights that the technique provide effective and practical management for difficult gap nonunion. It does not require specialized equipment, investigations, and surgery. Thus, it provides a reasonable alternative to the developing infrastructures and is a reliable and reproducible technique.
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Outcome of arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair: Are the results improving with improved techniques and equipment?: A retrospective case series p. 297
GR Arun, Pradeep Kumar, Sarthak Patnaik, Karthik Selvaraj, David Rajan, Anant Singh, Vinay Kumaraswamy
Background: Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction. More recently, there has been a renewed interest in understanding the subscapularis tears. There are multiple articles in the literature showing the short term results of isolated subscapularis tendon repair. However, the midterm and long term outcome studies for arthroscopic subscapularis repair are few. This study evaluates the functional outcome after arthroscopic subscapularis repair. Materials and Methods: The records of 35 patients who underwent an arthroscopic subscapularis repair between May 2008 and June 2012 were included in this retrospective study. The records of all patients were reviewed. There were 22 males and 13 female patients with mean age of 58.2 years (range 41-72 years). All patients had a complete history, physical examination, and radiographs of their shoulders. Visual analogue scale (VAS), range of movements, power of cuff muscles, and modified University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score were assessed. Results: The mean followup was 2.8 years (range 2-4 year). Functional outcome after arthroscopic subscapularis repair has an excellent outcome as analysed by clinical outcome, VAS score and UCLA score. Results were analyzed and had statistically significant values. The VAS for pain improved significantly (P < 0.001), and the mean modified UCLA score improved significantly (P < 0.001) from 14.24 ± 4.72 preoperatively to 33.15 ± 2.29 at 2 years postoperative. According to the UCLA system, there were 22 excellent, 11 good, and 2 fair results. Around 95% of patients returned to their usual work after surgery. Conclusion: At a median followup of 2 years, 95% of patients had a good to excellent result after an arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair. We conclude that the midterm results show that arthroscopic subscapularis repair remains a good option for the treatment of patients with subscapularis tendon repair.
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Glenohumeral kinematics after soft tissue interposition graft and glenoid reaming: A cadaveric study p. 303
Nickolas G Garbis, Alexander E Weber, Elizabeth F Shewman, Brian J Cole, Anthony A Romeo, Nikhil N Verma
Background: The management of young patients with glenohumeral arthritis is controversial. Resurfacing of the glenoid with biologic interposition and reaming of the glenoid have been suggested as potential treatment options. The goal of this study was to determine the change in glenohumeral contact pressures in interposition arthroplasty, as well as glenoid reaming in an arthritis model. We hypothesized that interposition with meniscal allograft will lead to the best normalization of contact pressure throughout the glenohumeral range of motion. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested in static positions of humeral abduction with a compressive load. Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially for (1) intact glenoid (2) glenoid with cartilage removed (arthritis model) (3) placement of lateral meniscus allograft (4) placement of Achilles allograft (5) arthritis model with reamed glenoid. Results: The arthritis model demonstrated statistically higher peak pressures than intact glenoid and glenoid with interpositional allograft. Meniscal and Achilles allograft lowered mean contact pressure and increased contact area to a level equal to or more favorable than the control state. In contrast, the reamed glenoid did not show any statistical difference from the arthritis model for any of the recorded measures. Conclusion: Glenohumeral contact pressure is significantly improved with interposition of allograft at time zero compared to an arthritic state. Our findings suggest that concentric reaming did not differ from the arthritic model when compared to normal. These findings favor the use of allograft for interposition as a potential treatment option in patients with glenoid wear.
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Isolated coronoid fracture: Assessment by magnetic resonance imaging for concomitant injuries p. 311
Aashay L Kekatpure, Iman Widya Aminata, In-Ho Jeon, In-Hyeok Rhyou, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jae-Myeung Chun
Background: Ligamentous injury associated with isolated coronoid fracture had been sparingly reported. Concealed or unclear fractures and ligamentous or articular cartilage lesions are promptly acknowledged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but cannot be entirely pictured in regular radiological assessments. In isolated coronoid fracture, the fragment size is very small and due to the complex anatomy surrounding the coronoid radiographic imaging may not be sufficient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of combined osteochondral and ligamentous injuries by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 24 patients with an isolated coronoid fracture. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study conducted at tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2011, elbow radiographs (anteroposterior and lateral views), computed tomography scan images, and MRI in the sagittal, coronal, axial, oblique, and coronal oblique planes were collected and reviewed. Musculoskeletal radiologist with subspecialty training in musculoskeletal MR interpretation and a fellowship-trained shoulder and elbow surgeon evaluated the MRI. Results: The incidence of associated injuries revealed torn lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in all 24 patients (100%) while 15 patients (62.5%) had common extensor muscle tears. Seven of 24 elbows (29.2%) showed medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear, and 13 of 16 patients (81.3%) with anteromedial facet fracture had MCL attached to the fragment. Five of 24 (20.8%) cases had contusions on the radial head. On the distal humeral side, 15 patients had bone contusions on the posterior inferior of the trochlear on sagittal view. The ligament affections of the LCL were confirmed intraoperatively and repaired. Conclusion: LCL injury was consistent in all isolated coronoid fracture. The forces resulting in the injury appear similar to varus distraction forces acting in the knee leading to distraction injuries of the lateral structures of the knee joint. As concurrent osteochondral injuries and ligamentous injuries are not rare, magnetic resonance analysis serves as an excellent tool for analysis of the ligamentous injuries preoperatively and aids in surgical planning.
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Outcome of unstable fractures of metacarpal and phalangeal bones treated by bone tie p. 316
Jagannath B Kamath, Nikil Jayasheelan, Amaranth Savur, Rejith Mathews
Background: Unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of the hand need surgical stabilization which should be rigid enough for early active mobilization. Conventional methods of open reduction and stabilization in the form of composite fixation or screws with or without plates have served the purpose but can be definitely improvised addressing both biological and mechanical principles of fixation. Materials and Methods: 34 patients (29 males and 5 females) with an average age of 32 years (range 10–64 years) with unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of hand who were treated with the modified bone tie between June 2009 and June 2013 were included in this study. 42 fractures, involving the 31 metacarpals and 11 phalanges were included. We have not used this technique in fractures involving the terminal phalanges. Thirty nine of the fractures were treated with K-wires along with the modified bone tie, whereas the other two cases were treated with modified bone tie alone and in one case the bone tie has been used along with the external fixator. The nature of injuries were Road Traffic Accident (n = 24), domestic/industrial injuries (n = 8) and blast (n = 2) injuries. Etiology was crush (n = 24), blunt (n = 7) and incised (n = 3) injuries, respectively. Twenty seven patients were involved with single fractures (either metacarpal or the phalanges), 6 patients had two fractures (both metacarpals or phalanges or one each of metacarpal and phalanx), and 1 patient had three fractures in this study. Dominant hand was involved in 14 patients (40%). Results: We achieved excellent to good results in 83% of 42 fractures within an average period of 10 weeks. Postoperative grip strength of 85% was achieved with in an average period of 12 weeks. Twenty six (20 metacarpals and 6 phalanges) of the 42 fractures regained >85% of the total active movements (TAMs) compared to the contralateral side were considered excellent results. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 1 year. Conclusion: This method of composite fixation allowed the surgeon to remove the concomitantly used axial K-wire at or <3 weeks clearly explaining the biomechanical basis for better results with minimum complication rates.
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Trends in scientific publications of Indian spine surgeons over 14 years (2000–2013) p. 322
Rishi Mugesh Kanna, Asdrubal Falavigna, Pedro Guarise da Silva, Francine Wurzius Quadros, Luiz Henrique Merlin, Lucas Radaelli, Juan Pablo Guyot, Diego Dozza, Daniel K Riew, Delio Martins, Kawaguchi Yoshiharu, S Rajasekaran
Background: The number and quality of scientific publications reflects the standards of scientific research in a country. However, the contribution of Indian spine surgeons toward global publications is unknown. The goal is to study the publications of Indian spine surgeons between 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the publications by Indian spine surgeons was performed using MEDLINE. The search terms used were India and several spine-related terminologies. The main information of the selected papers including the year of publication, scientific journal, type of pathology studied, Neurosurgical or Orthopedic Department where the study was done, type of study, and the type of article was analyzed. Results: A total of 4459 articles were identified using MEDLINE and after exclusion, 507 articles were analyzed. A growth of 440% in the number of publications was observed in the period between 2009 and 2013, during which 60.15% of the articles were published. Clinical studies (n = 492; 97.04) were the most common types of articles, followed by experimental studies and other types. The Neurosurgery department published the majority of the articles (58.2%). The three most common pathologies studied were spinal tumors (17.35%), surgical technique (15.4%), and spinal infection (15.2%). Conclusion: The current study shows that publications in the field of spine surgery have been increasing in the last few years, although it is less. Further efforts such as research training of spine surgeons, inducing collaborations and formulation of multicenter projects and periodically allocating adequate funds are key factors to improve the scientific publications from India.
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Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection p. 327
Mukesh Kumar, Jai Thilak, Adnan Zahoor, Arun Jyothi
Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.
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Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture p. 331
Kazufumi Sano, Satoru Ozeki, Ichiro Sugimoto, Masato Ogawa
A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.
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Comparative study of single lateral locked plating versus double plating in type C bicondylar tibial plateau fractures p. 335
Sunil Kumar Raina, Bhanu Awasthi
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Author's reply p. 335
Devdatta Suhas Neogi, Vivek Trikha, Kaushal Kant Mishra, Shivanand M Bandekar, Chandra Shekhar Yadav
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Tuberculosis of the skeletal system p. 337
Anil K Jain
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Erratum: Reliability of the mangled extremity severity score in combat - related upper and lower extremity injuries p. 338

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