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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-June 2017
Volume 51 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 237-355

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EDITORIAL  

Effective medical writing: How to write a case report which Editors would publish Highly accessed article p. 237
Rehan Ul Haq, Ish Kumar Dhammi
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_115_17  PMID:28566774
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SYMPOSIUM - ICL - 2017 Top

Orthopedic surgery in cerebral palsy: Instructional course lecture Highly accessed article p. 240
Deepak Sharan
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_197_16  PMID:28566775
Orthopedic surgery (OS) plays an important role in the management of cerebral palsy (CP). The objectives of OS are to optimize functions and prevent deformity. Newer developments in OS for CP include emphasis on hip surveillance, minimally invasive procedures, use of external fixators instead of plates and screws, better understanding of lever arm dysfunctions (that can only be corrected by bony OS), orthopedic selective spasticity-control surgery, and single-event multilevel lever arm restoration and anti spasticity surgery, which have led to significant improvements in gross motor function and ambulation, especially in spastic quadriplegia, athetosis, and dystonia. The results of OS can be dramatic and life altering for the person with CP and their caregivers if it is performed meticulously by a specialized surgical team, at the appropriate age, for the correct indications, employing sound biomechanical principles and is followed by physician-led, protocol based, intensive, multidisciplinary, institutional rehabilitation, and long term followup. However, OS can be a double-edged sword, and if performed less than optimally, and without the supporting multidisciplinary medical and rehabilitation team, expertise and infrastructure, it often leads to significant functional worsening of the person with CP, including irretrievable loss of previous ambulatory capacity. OS must be integrated into the long term management of the person with CP and should be anticipated and planned at the optimal time and not viewed as a “last resort” intervention or failure of rehabilitation. This instructional course lecture reviews the relevant contemporary principles and techniques of OS in CP.
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SYMPOSIUM - ICL Top

Infected nonunion of tibia Highly accessed article p. 256
Milind Madhav Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_199_16  PMID:28566776
Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced membrane technique is an alternative to bone transport to fill gaps. It needs large amounts of bone graft from iliac crest or femoral canal. This is an expensive method physiologically and economically. Infection can resorb the graft and cause failure of treatment. It can be done in select cases after thorough eradication of infection. Patience and perseverance are needed for successful resolution of infection and achieving union.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Surgical treatment of secondary fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty: A retrospective study p. 269
Jiang-jun Zhu, Dong-sheng Zhang, Su-liang Lou, Yong-hong Yang
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205677  PMID:28566777
Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) are effective procedures for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). However, recent studies have reported that secondary VCFs develop in patients after PVP or PKP treatment. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and management of secondary fractures after PVP or PKP. Materials and Methods: 599 cases who had vertebral compression fracture and underwent PVP or PKP between September 2008 and June 2014 were enrolled, including 121 males and 478 females. Secondary fractures were observed in 52 cases, including 3 males and 49 females, who were treated by re-operation with PVP or PKP. Results: The ratio of secondary fracture after PVP or PKP was 8.68% in all cases. The age ranged from 59 to 92 years (74.41 ± 6.83 average). A composition of 44.44% of the secondary fracture occurred near the initial fracture vertebrae. After re-operation with PVP or PKP, visual analog scale score significantly decreased to 2.72 ± 0.88 or 2.52 ± 1.12, respectively, anterior height of vertebral bodies increased to 24.69 ± 4.59 or 24.54 ± 5.97 mm, respectively, and middle height of vertebral bodies increased to 20.90 ± 3.72 or 20.36 ± 6.33 mm, respectively. Conclusions: There is a high chance of secondary fracture near the initially operated vertebrae after PVP or PKP. Re-operation with PVP or PKP achieves satisfactory outcomes in these patients such as pain relief and the recovery of the vertebrae height.
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Nonunion of greater trochanter following total hip arthroplasty: Treated by an articulated hook plate and bone grafting p. 273
Diego L Fernandez, John T Capo, Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez, Richard M Hinds, Maurice E Müller
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205680  PMID:28566778
Background: Trochanteric osteotomy still has an important role in hip arthroplasty in cases of (1) preexisting developmental hip dysplasia with superior subluxation, (2) revision arthroplasty, specifically with acetabular component revision in the face of well-fixed femoral component, and (3) recurrent dislocation without component loosening or malalignment, in treatment of complicated trochanteric fixation in osteoporotic bone and nonunions may be difficult. This study reports the clinical outcomes of trochanteric fixation following total hip arthroplasty (THA) utilizing a hook plate construct in a cohort of ten patients. Materials and Methods: The Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) articulated hook plate was used in nine cases of established approach related nonunion following THA and in one case of osteopenic bone during primary THA. All ten patients returned for interviews and clinical examination. The average time for clinical followup was 35 months (range 5–48 months). The mean age of the study cohort was 65 years (range 56–74 years). Time to union and incidence of postoperative complications were assessed. Results: Union occurred in all ten cases at an average of 3.3 months postoperatively. One patient developed symptomatic trochanteric bursitis and required plate removal. Another patient developed a superficial infection which was successfully treated with local wound debridement and antibiotics. A third patient developed a symptomatic neuroma at the site of the iliac crest bone harvest and was successfully treated with excision of the neuroma. No catastrophic implant failures occurred. Conclusions: The articulated design of the plate allows for ease in application and functional construct stability. The articulated hook plate is an option for fixation of osteopenic bone fragments and established nonunions of the greater trochanter.
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Pain management in total knee arthroplasty by intraoperative local anesthetic application and one-shot femoral block p. 280
Aykut Sigirci
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205688  PMID:28566779
Background: Pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a big problem in orthopaedic surgery. Although opioids and continuous epidural analgesia remain the major options for the postoperative pain management of TKA, they have some undesirable side effects. Epidural analgesia is technically demanding, and the patient requires close monitoring. Different types of local anesthetic applications can successfully treat TKA pain. Local anesthetics have the advantage of minimizing pain at the source. This study investigates the efficacy of different local anesthetic application methods on early, (1st day) pain control after total knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: 200 patients who underwent unilateral TKA surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned into four different groups (fifty in each group) and were administered pain control by different peri- and postoperative regimens. Group A was the control group wherein no postsurgical analgesia was administered to assess spinal anesthesia efficacy; in Group B, only postsurgical one-shot femoral block was applied; in Group C, intraoperative periarticular local anesthetic was applied; in Group D, a combination of the one-shot femoral block and intraoperative periarticular local anesthetics were applied. Demographic data consisting of age, weight, gender and type of deformity of patients were collected. The data did not differ significantly between the four groups. Results: Group D patients experienced significantly better postoperative pain relief (P < 0.05) and were therefore more relaxed in pain (painless time, VAS score) and knee flexion (degrees) than the other patient groups in the 1st postoperative day followup. Painless time of Group D was 10.5 hours and was better than Group C (6.8 hours), Group B (6.2 hours) and Group A (3.0 hours) (P < 0.05). Group A got the best pain Vas score degrees in the 1st postoperative day which showed the success of combined periarticülar local anesthetic injection and femoral nerve block. Conclusion: The intraoperative periarticular application of local anesthetics in addition to one-shot femoral block is an efficient way of controlling postsurgical pain after TKA.
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Radiologic assessment of femoral and tibial tunnel placement based on anatomic landmarks in arthroscopic single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction p. 286
Sandeep Kumar Nema, Gopisankar Balaji, Sujiv Akkilagunta, Jagdish Menon, Murali Poduval, Dilip Patro
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_219_16  PMID:28566780
Background: Accurate tibial and femoral tunnel placement has a significant effect on outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Postoperative radiographs provide a reliable and valid way for the assessment of anatomical tunnel placement after ACLR. The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic location of tibial and femoral tunnels in patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR using anatomic landmarks. Patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR from January 2014 to March 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 45 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR, postoperative radiographs were studied. Femoral and tibial tunnel positions on sagittal and coronal radiographic views, graft impingement, and femoral roof angle were measured. Radiological parameters were summarized as mean ± standard deviation and proportions as applicable. Interobserver agreement was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: The position of the tibial tunnel was found to be at an average of 35.1% ± 7.4% posterior from the anterior edge of the tibia. The femoral tunnel was found at an average of 30% ± 1% anterior to the posterior femoral cortex along the Blumensaat's line. Radiographic impingement was found in 34% of the patients. The roof angle averaged 34.3° ± 4.3°. The position of the tibial tunnel was found at an average of 44.16% ± 3.98% from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. The coronal tibial tunnel angle averaged 67.5° ± 8.9°. The coronal angle of the femoral tunnel averaged 41.9° ± 8.5°. Conclusions: The femoral and tibial tunnel placements correlated well with anatomic landmarks except for radiographic impingement which was present in 34% of the patients.
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A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures p. 292
Arup K Daolagupu, Ashwani Mudgal, Vikash Agarwala, Kaushik K Dutta
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205674  PMID:28566781
Background: Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). Materials and Methods: 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. Results: In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant (P < 0.0001). Average time required for partial and full weight bearing in the nailing group was 4.95 weeks and 10.09 weeks respectively which was significantly less (P < 0.0001) as compared to 6.90 weeks and 13.38 weeks in the plating group. Lesser complications in terms of implant irritation, ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. Conclusion: IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.
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Early results of an intraosseous device for arthrodesis of the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint p. 299
Efstathios Drampalos, Shen Hwa Vun, Levent Bayam, Irfan Fayyaz
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205689  PMID:28566782
Background: Arthrodesis of the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is commonly done as a primary procedure either to correct severe hallux valgus deformities or for rheumatoid arthritis, hallux rigidus, in patients with neuromuscular disorders and as a salvage procedure for failed bunion surgery or infection. Prominent metalwork frequently can cause soft tissue impingement and thus require removal. In contrast, osteosynthesis with a completely intraosseous implant has the advantage of less damage to the periosteal circulation. We describe a surgical technique and the early results of arthrodesis of the hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint using an intraosseous fixation device. Materials and Methods: Twelve consecutive patients operated with this method were retrospectively reviewed. The average age was 57 years (range 44–88 years). A retrospective review of radiographs and electronic medical notes was conducted. The patients were also asked to fill a satisfaction questionnaire. Results: Overall fusion rate was 91% with a mean hallux valgus angle of 15° (range 4–20°) and a mean dorsiflexion angle of 20° (range 7–30°). Complications included a case of failed fusion, a delayed union, and a case of persisting transfer metatarsalgia. At a mean followup of 14 months (range 5–28 months), the mean visual analog scale improved significantly from a mean of 8.4 (range 7–10) preoperatively, to a mean of 3.1 (range 0–7) postoperatively (P < 0.0001). The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux score also significantly improved from 29.4 (range 10–54) to a mean of 73.3 (range 59–90) (P < 0.0001). The final result was satisfactory for 83% of the patients. Conclusions: The early results show intraosseous fixation to be a safe and efficient method for the fusion of the hallux MTP joint providing relief from pain and patient satisfaction.
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A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and triamcinolone to treat tennis elbow p. 304
Vanamali B Seetharamaiah, Amrit Gantaguru, Sunil Basavarajanna
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_181_16  PMID:28566783
Background: Lateral elbow pain is common with a population prevalence of 1%–3%. The study was a comparative trial to validate the efficacy of single injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for tennis elbow as compared with single injections of triamcinolone and placebo (normal saline) over a short term period. Materials and Methods: Comparative trial with 3- and 6-month followup evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) and facial pain scale (FPS). Our study included a total of eighty patients with unilateral or bilateral tennis elbows. The study population included patients between 20 and 40 years age group belonging to either sex with seventy unilateral and ten bilateral affections for more than 3-month duration. Patients suffering from elbow pain due to other problems or those who have received any form of injection were excluded from the study. One milliliter of 2% Xylocaine injection was given before injecting the proposed formulation under trial. VAS and FPS were used for scoring pain. Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analyses at 12 and 24 weeks. Results: Overall, 49 females and 31 males were included with thirty elbows in each group. Both the PRP and triamcinolone groups had better pain relief at 3 and 6 months as compared to normal saline group (P < 0.05), but at 6 months followup, the PRP group had statistically significant better pain relief than triamcinolone group. In the triamcinolone group, 13 patients had injection site hypopigmentation and 3 patients had subdermal atrophy. Conclusion: Over a short term period, PRP gives better pain relief than triamcinolone or normal saline in tennis elbow which needs to be validated over long term period by further studies.
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Management of open fractures using a noncontact locking plate as an internal fixator p. 312
Azad Yildirim, Ahmet Kapukaya, Yılmaz Mertsoy, Şehmus Yiğit, Mehmet Akif Çaçan, Ramazan Atiç
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205686  PMID:28566784
Background: The treatment of open fractures leads to major problems which may be due to various reasons. It mainly causes soft tissue problems due to the absorption of a large amount of energy by the soft tissues and bone tissues. Although some recent treatment protocols have eliminated many problems regarding delayed soft tissue closure, it still remains a big challange. This study uses a method called the internal fixator technique with noncontact locking plate (NC-LP) which involves the use of a combination of advantages of open and closed fixation techniques. Materials and Methods: 42 patients (32 men and 10 women) having a mean age of 34.11 years (range 17–56 years) with open fractures operated using internal fixator technique between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. A retrospective chart review was conducted to record the following: age, gender, anatomic region of fractures, fracture etiology, classification of open fractures by Gustilo–Anderson and AO classification, surgeries, length of hospitalization, location and pattern of fracture, length of followup, and complications. Results: The fractures were caused by traffic accidents, shotgun injuries, falls from heights, and industrial crush injuries. Based on the Gustilo–Anderson classification, 31 fractures were Type III and 11 were Type II, where 23 were localized in the tibia and 19 in the femur. Patients delay for a mean of 13.5 h (range 6–24 h) for operation and the mean followup interval was 27.8 months (range 16–44 months). The mean union time was 19.7 weeks (range 16–29 weeks). One patient had delayed union and implant failure, one patient had osteomyelitis, five suffered from surface skin necrosis, and one patient had an angulation of 17° in the sagittal plane, for which no additional intervention was performed. Conclusions: This case series demonstrates that an “internal fixator technique” is an acceptable alternative to the management of open fractures of the femur or tibia in adult patients. The NC-LP method provided opportunities to achieve a stable fixation with noncontact between the implant and the bone tissues, and the fractures were sufficiently stabilized to allow union with a low complication rate.
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Combined negative pressure wound therapy with open bone graft for infected wounds with bone defects: An experimental study p. 318
Ramesh Kumar Jha, Chengyan Xia, Zonghuan Li, Weiyang Wang, Kai Deng
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_220_16  PMID:28566785
Background: Bone and soft-tissue defects in infected wound have been an intractable problem to many surgical consultations. Infected wounds with bone defects are physical and financial burden to society. Nowadays, infected wounds with compound defect of bone and soft tissues are common in orthopedics department. Currently, no simple and efficient treatment has been found to solve this problem. This study investigates the effects of combining negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with open bone graft on this focus. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rabbits with bone and soft tissue defects accompanied infected wounds were randomized into experimental (combined NPWT with open bone graft) and contrast group (only open bone graft). Treatment efficacy was assessed by the wound condition; wound healing time, bacterial bioburden, and bony callus were evaluated by X-ray. Furthermore, samples of granulation tissue from wounds on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days of healing were evaluated for blood vessels and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Results: Wounds in the experimental group tended to have shorter healing time, healthier wound conditions, lower bacterial bioburden, better bony callus, and more blood supply than those in the controlled group. Conclusions: In conclusion, NPWT combined open bone graft can act as a feasible and valuable method to treat combined infected bone and soft-tissue defects.
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Short and mid term results of revision total knee arthroplasty with Global Modular Replacement System p. 324
Dariusz Marczak, Jacek Kowalczewski, Jarosław Czubak, Tomasz Okoń, Marek Synder, Marcin Sibiński
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205684  PMID:28566786
Background: The original knee megaprostheses with fixed or rotating hinge articulation were custom made and only used for reconstruction of the knee following distal femoral or proximal tibial tumor resections. The aim of the study was to analyze the short- and mid-term results of revision total knee arthroplasty with Global Modular Replacement System (GMRS) used in difficult situations not amenable to reconstruction with standard total knee replacement implants. Materials and Methods: Nine patients (9 knees) were treated with this comprehensive modular implant system, with a mean age of 73.7 years (range 56–83 years) and a mean followup of 5 years (range 3–8 years). Two patients were treated for distal femoral nonunion, five for distal femur periprosthetic fracture and two for periprosthetic joint infection. Results: The mean Knee Society Score: Knee and functional scores were 77.9 and 40 points, respectively. All demonstrated full extension and flexion was at least 90°. Recurrence of infection was present in one patient. No signs of loosening, dislocation, or implant failure were observed. Conclusions: Based on our small series of patients that represent severe cases, GMRS provides relatively good mid-term functional results, pain relief, and good implant survivorship with a low complication rate. This salvage procedure allows elderly, infirm patients to regain early ambulatory ability.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Acute flaccid paraparesis (cauda equina syndrome) in a patient with Bardet–Biedl syndrome p. 330
Vibhu Krishnan Viswanathan, Rishi Mugesh Kanna, Ajoy Prasad Shetty, S Rajasekaran
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205682  PMID:28566787
Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare, autosomal-recessive, debilitating genetic disorder, which can present with multitudinous systemic clinical features including rod-cone dystrophy, polydactyly, Frohlich-like central obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal anomalies. Diverse neuromuscular manifestations in patients afflicted by this heterogeneous disorder include ataxia, cervical, and thoracic canal stenoses, presenting as spastic quadriparesis and other gait disturbances. We report a young patient with BBS, who had presented with acute flaccid paraparesis due to severe primary lumbar canal stenosis. She underwent immediate lumbar decompression and discectomy following which she recovered significantly. Acute cauda equina syndrome due to primary lumbar canal stenosis has not been reported as a clinical feature of BBS previously.
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Patellar tendon re-rupture on the opposite end of the previous site of surgical repair p. 334
Bryan Thean Howe KOH, Andrew A SAYAMPANATHAN, Keng Thiam LEE
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205687  PMID:28566788
We describe a rare case of a patellar tendon “re-rupture” at the opposite end of a previous proximal tendon repair. A 32-year-old male with a history of surgically repaired right proximal patellar tendon rupture presented with an acute non-traumatic right knee pain and instability during sports. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a complete rupture of his distal patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity. The patellar tendon was repaired using two 5.5 mm BioCorkscrews (Arthrex) inserted into the tibial tuberosity; the tendon was stitched with the No. 2 fiberwires using Krackow technique. As the patellar tendon was degenerative, the repair was augmented with a semitendinosus tendon harvested using an open tendon stripper, leaving the distal attachment intact. At 2.6 years followup he had mild anterior knee pain, range of motion 0-130[0] and was able to squat. MRI scan done at followup revealed good healing of repaired patellar tendon.
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Prosthetic knee joint infection due to Mycobacterium abscessus p. 337
Priyadarshi Amit, Sumeet Rastogi, SKS Marya
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205685  PMID:28566789
Infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to Mycobacterium abscessus is very rare with only three such cases described in literature. Only one case was managed successfully, however, with a prolonged course of anti tubercular therapy. In this case report, we present an elderly lady with infected TKA after 2 years of the primary procedure. Although initially it grew different bacteriae, M. abscessus was isolated during the second debridement. She was successfully treated with total of 5 months of second line anti tubercular drugs with revision prosthesis performed during chemotherapy. Two years followup revealed satisfactory outcome with no relapse.
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One stage revision single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with impacted morselized bone graft following a failed double-bundle reconstruction p. 343
Ho Jong Ra, Jeong Ku Ha, Jin Goo Kim, Do-Yon Hwang
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205676  PMID:28566790
Although double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has theoretical benefits such as more accurate reproduction of ACL anatomy, it is technically more demanding surgery. This report describes the case of a one stage revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction after primary double-bundle ACL reconstruction. A professional dancer had an ACL previously reconstructed with a double-bundle technique, but the femoral tunnels were malpositioned resulting in residual laxity and rotational instability. The previous femoral tunnel positions were vertical and widened. The previous vertical tunnels were filled with impacted bone graft and a revision single-bundle ACL reconstruction was performed via the new femoral tunnel with a 2 O'clock position between the previous two tunnels. After 10 months of postoperative rehabilitation, the patient returned to professional dancing with sound bony union and without any residual instability.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Reverse distal femoral locking compression plate a salvage option in nonunion of proximal femoral fractures p. 347
Yasir Salam Siddiqui, Mohd Khalid Anwar Sherwani
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.205678  PMID:28566791
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Author's reply p. 348
Sampat S Dumbre Patil, Sachin S Karkamkar, Vaishali S Dumbre Patil, Shailesh S Patil, Abhijeet S Ranaware
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_435_16  PMID:28566792
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Current state of orthopedic education in India p. 349
BV Murlimanju, PR Krishnaprasad, PV Santosh Rai, K V N Dinesh, Latha V Prabhu
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_475_16  PMID:28566793
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Author's reply p. 350
Anil Kumar Jain
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_27_17  PMID:28566794
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BOOK REVIEWS Top

Patient safety: Protect yourself from medical errors p. 352
Deepak Shah
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_39_17  
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Orthogeriatrics p. 353
Anil Kumar Jain
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_48_17  
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PROFILE Top

Legends of Indian Orthopedics: Prof. M. Natarajan p. 354
Mayil Vahanan Natarajan
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_162_17  PMID:28566795
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OBITUARY Top

Obituary – Dr. KP Srivastava p. 355
KK Pruthi
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_193_17  
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