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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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November-December 2018
Volume 52 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 575-688

Online since Monday, November 5, 2018

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EDITORIAL  

How to write systematic review or metaanalysis Highly accessed article p. 575
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan Ul Haq
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_557_18  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Reoperations following lumbar spinal canal stenosis p. 578
Shakti A Goel, Hitesh N Modi
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_380_17  
In the current clinical scenario, restenosis following the primary surgical procedure for lumbar canal stenosis is being frequently noticed. A number of studies have evaluated the reoperation rates following different surgical procedures for lumbar canal stenosis. However, a dilemma still exists about the surgical procedures, associated comorbidities and reoperation rates. In this study, we have reviewed the existing literature for lumbar canal stenosis surgery and their reoperation rates. A PubMed search for all papers stating “reoperation after spinal stenosis,” “revision surgery after spinal stenosis,” and “reoperations and lumbar canal stenosis” were explored. A total of 440 publications were found, of which 23 publications were shortlisted. The existing literature on reoperation rates after surgery for lumbar canal stenosis was reviewed and analyzed. From the literature search, 29680 patients who underwent surgeries for spinal stenosis have been included in the review. 11.65% ± 4.25% of them underwent reoperations following the primary procedure with a followup period of 6.80 ± 3.90 years. Fenestration surgeries showed an average reoperation rate of 7.58% ± 5.29% in 8.28 ± 6.26 years followup as compared to laminectomy alone (12.70% ± 7.49%, 6.50 ± 2.12 years followup). Laminectomy with or without fusion showed a reoperation rate of 11.22% ± 4.25% in 6.00 ± 2.60 years followup period. The comparative results of these studies were however not significant. The causes of reoperation were multifactorial ranging from the type of procedure performed, associated comorbidities or smoking. Statistical data do not indicate the superiority of any particular type of surgery, which reduces the rate of reoperation. The causes for reoperation are inadequate decompression or instability. The literature does not give statistics for these complications in the papers. Smoking is an independent risk factor for revision surgery. Diabetes reduces the time interval between the initial surgery and the revision surgery. This review highlights the causes of reoperations in various lumbar stenosis surgeries, associated comorbidities and expected outcome.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A comparative study of conservative functional treatment versus acute ligamentous repair in simple dislocation of the elbow in adults p. 584
Milan Krticka, Daniel Ira, Martin Flek, Jan Svancara, Radek Pikula
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_578_16  
Background: Elbow dislocation is the second most frequent type of large joint dislocations in adults. Standard treatment of simple elbow dislocation (SED) without manifestation of instability includes closed reduction, short-term immobilization of the elbow followed by functional aftercare. This study evaluates SED treatment, comparing outcomes of conservative functional treatment and surgical therapy. Materials and Methods: 54 adult patients with SED without manifest instability treated in tertiary hospital between January 2008 and June 2015 were analyzed in this retrospective study. 28 patients were treated conservatively. Closed elbow reduction was followed by short-term plaster splint and active rehabilitation. Twenty six patients underwent closed elbow reduction and subsequent reconstruction of torn collateral ligaments. Postoperatively, plaster splint was applied followed by rehabilitation. Results: Patients who were treated conservatively reached statistically significant better scores in Quick Disability Arm Shoulder Hand, Oxford Elbow Score, and Mayo Elbow Performance Score. Functional conservative treatment resulted in a higher range of motion. The complication rate was higher in the group of surgically treated patients. Conclusions: Careful examination of elbow stability after closed reduction of SED is crucial for further therapy. Patients with stable SED should be treated with functional conservative therapy. Surgical collateral ligaments revision and reconstruction are indicated only for patients with manifestation of elbow instability.
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Treatment of modified Mason Type III or IV radial head fracture: Open reduction and internal fixation versus arthroplasty p. 590
Seung Min Ryu, Sam-Guk Park, Ji-Hoon Kim, Han Seok Yang, Ho Dong Na, Jae-Sung Seo
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_537_16  
Background: The treatment of modified Mason Type III or IV fractures is controversial. Many authors report open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with reconstruction of the radial head, but others advocate radial head arthroplasty (RHA). This study compares the clinical and radiological outcomes of ORIF and RHA in modified Mason Type III or IV radial head fracture and evaluates correlations between prognostic factors and postoperative clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods: 42 patients with modified Mason Type III or IV radial head fractures who were surgically treated between January 2010 and January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed (20 patients with RHA and 22 patients with ORIF group were selected). Clinically, the patient rated elbow evaluation (PREE), the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), and the range of motion (ROM) were measured. Radiologically, plain radiographs and computed tomography scans were taken. Results: The mean PREE scores were 13.9 for the RHA group and 13.0 for the ORIF group, and mean DASH scores were 9.5 and 10.7, respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. When comparing ROM, the patients in the RHA group showed greater movement at all measured angles. In multiple regression analysis, age was the only variable significantly associated with both PREE and DASH. Conclusion: Overall, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes of modified Mason Type III or IV radial head fractures treated with ORIF or RHA. However, a subgroup of younger patients had better clinical outcomes with ORIF treatment. Therefore, ORIF should be the first line of treatment, particularly if the reduction is possible.
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Arthroscopic transosseous repair for both proximal and distal components of peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex tear p. 596
Ji Hun Park, Jong Woong Park
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_598_16  
Background: Tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) can result in instability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) and ulnar-sided wrist pain. This study evaluates clinical results of arthroscopic transosseous repair for both proximal and distal components of TFCC tear with DRUJ instability. Materials and Methods: Ten patients who underwent both proximal component and distal component of TFCC repair were retrospectively reviewed. The proximal component of TFCC was repaired through arthroscopic one-tunnel transosseous suture technique, and the combined distal component tear was repaired to the ulnar capsule using same transosseous tunnel in all cases. Visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain, wrist range of motion, grip strength, and postoperative complications were evaluated after a mean followup period of 23.5 months, and each patient was rated according to modified Mayo wrist score and quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire. Results: On arthroscopic findings, the hook test confirmed the proximal component of the TFCC tear and visible capsular detachment from TFCC confirmed combined distal component tear in all patients. At final followup, 7 patients had normal stability of DRUJ and 3 patients showed mild laxity compared with the contralateral side. The mean VAS for pain perception decreased from 4.1 to 0.7, and grip strength was increased significantly. The modified Mayo wrist score and Quick DASH score showed significant functional improvement. No surgery-related complications occurred. Conclusions: Arthroscopic one-tunnel transosseous TFCC foveal repair and simulatneous transosseous capsular repair of distal component can be a safe and effective strategy for repair of complete TFCC tear combined with DRUJ instability.
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Volar locking plate versus external fixation for distal radius fractures: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials p. 602
Qiang Fu, Lei Zhu, Peng Yang, Aimin Chen
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_601_16  
Background: Volar locking plate (VP) and external fixation (EF) are the two most commonly used methods for treating distal radius fractures. The aim of this study was to identify which of the two treatments leads to better outcomes (clinically and radiographically) with fewer complications. Materials and Methods: A metaanalysis was performed. All available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the clinical results of VP to EF were obtained and the reported means and standard deviations were extracted to perform data synthesis. Results: A total of 9 published RCTs with 776 patients fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Data analysis revealed that VP gives better clinical results in the early postoperative period in terms of disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores (3 and 6 months), grip strength (3 months), flexion, extension, and supination (3 months). VP is also advantageous over EF regarding the DASH scores, maintenance of ulnar variance, and total and mild surgical complications at 12 months. Conclusions: This meta analysis supports the use of VP in treating distal radius fractures.
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A modified pull-out wire technique for acute mallet fracture of the finger p. 611
Yueh-Hsiu Lu, Chia-Chieh Wu, Chen-Pu Hsieh
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_325_16  
Background: A variety of surgical techniques for treating mallet fracture finger has been reported with different outcomes and complications. However, the optimal procedure remains controversial. This study describes surgical outcomes of mallet fractures of the finger with distal phalanx treated by modified pull-out wire fixation with Kirschner wire (K-wire) stabilization of the DIP joint in hyperextension. Materials and Methods: 30 patients who had mallet fracture finger injuries (Doyle's classification type IVC) with DIP joint subluxation between January 2009 and January 2015 were included in this study. The mean age was 28 years (range 18–50 years), and the mean duration of followup was 8 months (range 6–12 months). Outcome assessments included the skin necrosis, wire tract infection, bony union, and extension lag. We measured the pinch strength test at 8 weeks and 12 weeks postoperatively and graded the clinical results using Crawford's criteria. Results: All fractures united after surgery. There was no iatrogenic fracture fragmentation, marginal skin necrosis, wire tract infection, and nail deformity. The mean extension lag was 1.8° (range 0°–17°) through goniometer, 24 of 30 patients had 0° of extension lag. The pinch strength measured at 8 weeks and 12 weeks was 79% and improved to 91%, respectively, compared with uninjured opposite finger. According to Crawford's criteria, 24 patients were classified as excellent, 3 were good, and 3 were fair. No poor result in this study. Conclusion: Our modified pull-out wire fixation over a button and K-wire stabilization of DIP joint in hyperextension is a reliable surgical method for treating acute mallet fracture finger and DIP joint volar subluxation.
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Outcome of closed wedge varus derotation osteotomy with trochanteric apophysiodesis in perthes disease p. 616
EG Mohan Kumar, GM Yathisha Kumar, M Abdul Rasheed
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_47_17  
Background: Perthes disease is a condition in which a self-limiting avascular event affects the capital epiphysis of the femur with a very variable course. It has been shown frequently, however, that there is a group of patients who definitely benefit from containment, either surgical or nonsurgical, better with surgical. We studied midterm to long term outcome of closed wedge varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) with trochanteric apophysiodesis in Perthes disease. Materials and Methods:. 88 children with mean age of 7.9 ± 2 years, belonging to Herring's lateral pillar Groups B and C treated with VDRO with trochanteric apophysiodesis were included in this study. Radiological evaluation was done using Mose's index, the epiphyseal quotient, the articulotrochanteric distance and center edge angle of Wiberg. Results: Containment was achieved in all patients on postoperative radiographs. At a mean followup of 12 years, good results were obtained in 66, fair in 19, and poor in 3 patients using Catterall's postoperative classification. Conclusions: VDRO is an effective containment method of femoral head for patients belonging to the Herring's Group B and also effective in many patients belonging to Herring's Group C. It is a good procedure to attain containment in children <9 years of age. Trochanteric apophysiodesis reduces risk of limping.
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Three-dimensional models in planning of revision hip arthroplasty with complex acetabular defects p. 625
Gennadiy M Kavalerskiy, Valeriy Y Murylev, Yaroslav A Rukin, Pavel M Elizarov, Alexey V Lychagin, Evgeniya Y Tselisheva
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_556_16  
Background: Careful preoperative planning in revision cases with complex acetabular defects is crucial for optimal surgery outcome. However, in many cases, computed tomography (CT) scans cannot give a clear understanding of the pelvic destruction. Three-dimensional (3D) models-based on CT data can help surgeon in planning of complex acetabular reconstruction. Materials and Methods: We used 3D plaster pelvic models in 17 revision cases. There were 5 patients with Paprosky II C acetabular defects, 2 patients with Paprosky IIIA defects, and 10 patients with Paprosky IIIB defects (3 patients among them with pelvic discontinuity). We used 3D printer and digital 3D models based on CT scan data for 3D models printing. In 3 cases with Paprosky IIIB defects, we implanted custom-made acetabular components with the porous coating, also printed on the 3D printer. Results: In 14 cases, we used trabecular metal (TM) augments with TM cups. In 100% of cases, number and type of planned and used augments were same. In 9 (64.3%) cases, size of planned and used cups was same. In other cases, the difference was not >2 mm. Conclusions: Use of 3D plaster models for the revision hip arthroplasty planning with complex acetabular defects has shown high accuracy in the clear understanding of acetabular bone deficiency.
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An approach to floating knee injury in Indian Population: An analysis of 52 patients p. 631
Akshay Ganpatsinh Chavda, Nadeem A Lil, Pankaj R Patel
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_31_17  
Background: Floating knee is a condition resulting from high energy trauma usually associated with minor to life threatening injuries making it challanging to treat There are no studies available in literature describing cross leg sitting and squatting after surgical management of floating knee. This study analyzes prognostic factors, plan of management, functional outcomes (special attention to squatting and cross legged sitting), complications. Materials and Methods: 52 patients with floating knee injuries treated over a period of 3 years were included in this study. The study followed an algorithmic approach for the management. Femur fractures were fixed before fixing the tibia according to fracture type that was classified by Fraser classification after the stabilization of patient. The mean followup duration was 21 ± 6 months. The outcome was assessed using Karlstrom criteria after bony union. Results: The study consists of majority (46) of male. Thirty three patients had some types of significantly associated injury. The mean postoperative range of motion of the knee was observed to be 97° ± 27°. Twenty one patients showed excellent results, whereas 17, 8, and 6 patients had good, fair, and poor results, respectively, as per Karlstrom criteria. Knee pain, stiffness, infection, nerve palsy, delayed union, and nonunion were some of the complications observed. Cross legged sitting was possible in 40 patients and squatting in 31. Conclusion: The prognosis of floating knee injury is dependent on factors such as type of fracture, soft tissue condition, and management. Excellent outcomes following these injuries can be achieved with individualized plan of management by multidisciplinary team.
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Functional ultrasonography in diagnosing anterior cruciate ligament injury as compared to magnetic resonance imaging p. 638
Sudeep Kumar, Anup Kumar, Subhash Kumar, Prem Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_28_17  
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gold standard investigation for diagnosing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Availability and cost are two main factors limiting the universal use of MRI in all those patients in whom ligament injury is suspected. We compared the outcome of functional USG with gold standard MRI scan in this prospective study. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included the patients coming to orthopedics outpatient department with sign and symptoms of ACL injury. We performed functional USG of the injured and uninjured knee and noted the difference in translation, measured by USG. More than 1 mm of difference in translation of tibia on the affected side as compared to uninjured side is taken as significant. We compared our result with the findings of MRI. The study result of 130 patients revealed high sensitivity (81.65%) and high specificity (89%) in diagnosing ACL injury. The positive predictive value of the test was 97.8%, and the negative predictive value was 44%. The P value of the difference of translation as 0.0001 was also statistically significant. Conclusions: We can safely conclude from the study that the functional USG can be used as a primary tool to diagnose ACL tears. USG's ubiquitous availability and simple technique of the procedure can bring a revolution in the future for diagnosing and managing ACL injury.
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Interobserver reliability of pirani clubfoot severity scoring between an orthopedic surgeon, a resident doctor, and a nonmedical counsellor at a clubfoot clinic p. 645
Pulak Sharma, Rahul Verma, Sanjiv Gaur
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_10_17  
Background: Ponseti method is the gold standard treatment for idiopathic congenital clubfoot. Pirani clubfoot severity score is a vital tool in assessing treatment of clubfoot. This study determines whether, after a short training in the Pirani scoring, a nonmedical personnel can be as accurate as a doctor in assessing the degree of deformity in clubfoot. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study from January to September 2016. Pirani scoring of all children ≤6 months was done by the counsellor, an orthopedic resident, and a consultant separately. All the three members of the team were blinded of the other's score. The Pirani scoring of the consultant was taken as the most correct. The data were analyzed for interobserver reliability using the kappa statistic and point-by-point interobserver agreements. Results: One hundred and fifteen clubfeet in 75 children (48 males and 27 females) with an average age of 96 days were included in the study. Differences between the means of scores for each severity component of the deformity including the sum of midfoot scores, hindfoot scores, and total foot scores were <0.1. There was fair-to-substantial interobserver reliability of all the subcomponents when scores from the three independent observers were analyzed. Conclusion: Our study successfully demonstrates that after a short training, Pirani score can be successfully used in assessing clubfoot severity by a nonmedical counsellor.
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Evaluation of multi-slice spiral computed tomography in In vivo simulation of individualized cervical pedicle screw placement at C3–C7 in chinese healthy population p. 651
Wei Chen, Xiang-Ming Fang, Ping-Yan Qian, PS Sanjeev Kumar, Hong-wei Chen, HU Xiao-Yun
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_3_17  
Background: Cervical pedicle screw fixation through posterior approach has shown greater cervical stability advantage. The cervical pedicle screw fixation technique through posterior approach is demanding. The key to the technique is the choice of point and angle of screw entrance. The angle of screw placement is variable. Morphometric measurements of the cervical pedicle are a prerequisite for individualized screw. CT imaging has become the most reliable and important means to obtain cervical pedicle's measurement data and morphology in vivo. This study explores the feasibility and application of precise in vivo measurements by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) for individualized cervical transpedicular screw placement at C3–C7 in Chinese healthy population. Materials and Methods: 80 adults who underwent cervical examination by enhanced and nonenhanced computed tomography angiography, respectively, were selected and submitted to bone algorithm reconstruction for slice thickness and interval of 0.75 mm to acquire clear images and detailed bone structures. Simulation of individualized screw placement was performed with a 4.0 mm diameter screw with the help of postprocessing workstation. Pedicle transverse angle (PTA) and sagittal angle (PSA) were measured using the single- and double-line methods (analog nailing, 4.0 mm in diameter) in 160 pairs of C3–C7 pedicles, setting positive and negative values for cranial direction and foot side PSAs, respectively. Comparison of the measured change scope in PTA and PSA between the two methods was carried out; the range was defined as the error range. Results: Significantly, different results (P < 0.05) were obtained between the single- and double-line methods in the error ranges of PTA and PSA in C3–C7 pedicles. Interestingly, the double-line method was better in simulating the actual needs of individualized nailing. The mean values of PTA and PSA were 42.9°, 45.5°, 42.4°, 37.1°, 29.0° and 8.4°, 5.0°, −4.0°, and −7.8°, −8.1°, respectively, with the double-line method. Conclusion: MSCT reconstruction techniques can determine the direction and required parameters for individualized screw placement. In addition, accurate in vivo measurements of PTA and PSA, particularly PSA, provide the orthopedic surgeon with theoretical guidance and reliable basis in screw placement.
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Lowest instrumented vertebrae selection for posterior fusion of lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Can we stop the fusion one level proximal to lower-end vertebra? p. 657
Ismail Emre Ketenci, Hakan Serhat Yanik, Ayhan Ulusoy, Serdar Demiroz, Sevki Erdem
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_579_16  
Background: The most appropriate fusion levels remains challenging, especially in Lenke type 5 curves. In Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) generally fusion includes the lower end vertebra (LEV). This study determines whether it is appropriate to fuse mild to moderate Lenke 5 curves to LEV-1, if possible. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with mild to moderate Lenke 5 AIS that underwent posterior fusion were retrospectively evaluated. The preoperative goal was to stop the instrumentation at LEV-1 in all patients if possible. However, the final decision was made intraoperatively according to the alignment of the disc below lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV). In 19 patients, this goal was achieved and LIV was LEV-1, whereas 23 patients were fused to LEV. Hence, two groups occurred and they were compared in terms of coronal, sagittal, and LIV related parameters at 1 year and 3 years postoperatively. Surgical times were also noted. Clinical outcomes were assessed using scoliosis research society (SRS-22) and Short Form-36 questionnaires. Results: Two groups were well matched according to preoperative values. Postoperative radiographic results were also similar, except LIV disc angle and LIV translation, which were significantly higher in LEV-1 group at 1 and 3 years followup (P < 0.05). Surgical times were significantly longer in LEV group (P = 0.036). No significant correction loss was observed between 1 and 3 years followup. There were no significant differences regarding postoperative clinical outcomes except the activity domain of SRS-22, which was significantly higher in LEV-1 group, but the significance was weak (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Fusion to LEV-1was associated with the higher amount of LIV disc angle and LIV translation, which did not cause coronal and sagittal imbalance and decreased the quality of life scores. Hence, if intraoperatively a level disc below LIV can be achieved, fusion to LEV-1 may be an option in mild to moderate Lenke 5 curves, to save one more mobile segment.
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Anatomically precontoured locked plates in pilon fractures: A computed tomography based and cadaveric study p. 665
Hoon-Sang Sohn, Jong-Keon Oh, Ha Sol Yang, Hyeong Rang Kim
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_602_16  
Background: The treatment of comminuted tibia plafond fractures remains clinically challenging due to the complexity of the articular fracture pattern despite using the anatomically precontoured locked plates. This study describes the morphologic characteristics of the anterolateral fragment and to evaluate the fixability of the anterolateral fragment with the anatomically precontoured locked plate in the pilon fracture. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty five cases of AO 43-B and C fracture were evaluated using the computed tomography (CT) scan. The anterior-posterior distance in CT (APDc), medial-lateral distance in CT (MLDc), coronal and sagittal height, and articular surface area of the anterolateral fragment were measured in CT. Four types of anatomically precontoured locked plates were used for cadaveric measurement. Four cadaveric parameters were also evaluated; anteroposterior distance in plate (APDp), height of the screw in the medial plate, medial-lateral distance in plate (MLDp), and height of the screw in the anterolateral plate. Results: The anterolateral fragment was described with a mean surface area of 167.13 mm2 (APDc: 10.89 ± 4.64 mm, MLDc: 15.02 ± 6.56 mm, sagittal height: 14.85 ± 6.25 mm, and coronal height: 17.27 ± 6.88 mm). The cadaveric measurement showed that the juxta-articular screw of the medial distal tibia plate was placed away from the anterolateral fragment. The anterolateral distal tibia plate did not purchase the anterolateral fragment due to the higher position of the most distal-lateral screw (Synthes 18.37 ± 1.86 mm and Zimmer 17.78 ± 2.37 mm of the height of screw in the anterolateral plate). Conclusion: Anatomical distal tibial locked plates did not take purchase on the anterolateral fragment in pilon fracture in the best anatomical fit. Preoperative CT measurement can be used for determining a fixation strategy for the anterolateral fragment. In addition, a newly designed anterolateral distal tibia plate can be another solution when the usual anatomically precontoured distal tibia locked plate fails to cover the anterolateral fragment.
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Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis - A case series from India p. 672
Anand Prahalad Rao, Pooja Prakash Mallya, Shashi Ranjani, Jyothi Raghuram
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_464_17  
Background: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare auto-inflammatory disease of the bone. It tends to be multifocal and usually the symptoms tend to run for months and years before diagnosis is usually made. The objective of our study was to understand the clinical presentation and short-term response to treatment of CRMO patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with CRMO between 2011 and 2016 was done. Case records of these were retrospectively reviewed for clinical features, investigations and treatment received. Results: Six patients were diagnosed with CRMO. The median age of onset and time to diagnosis from onset of symptoms was 8 and 3.5 years respectively. Lower limb bones were the most commonly involved. Conclusions: There is significant delay in diagnosis of CRMO and this could be because of a lack of awareness of this condition amongst clinicians. Our case series with only male affection is rather unique as compared to other case series reported in medical literature which tend to have more female predilection. Pain with or without swelling was the most common symptom. Most of patients responded to combination therapy.
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CASE REPORT Top

Pure medial elbow dislocation without concomitant fracture in a 10-year-old child p. 678
Alaric Aroojis, Varun Narula, Darshana Sanghvi
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_534_17  
Pediatric elbow dislocations are rare injuries and are often accompanied by concomitant fractures. We report a rare case of medial dislocation of the right elbow without accompanying fracture in a 10.5-year-old boy after fall from a bicycle. After radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation, closed reduction under general anesthesia was performed and the elbow was immobilized in a posterior above-elbow slab. Elbow mobilization was started after 2 weeks and the posterior slab was discontinued after 4 weeks. At 3 months, the patient had a full range of active elbow flexion extension and pronation supination. At 4-year followup, radiographs show a normal alignment of the elbow with mild changes of heterotopic ossification. We believe that this is the first such case ever reported in literature. Early recognition and prompt diagnosis is the key to achieve a good result.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Spontaneous conventional osteosarcoma transformation of a chondroblastoma: A case report and literature review p. 682
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_107_18  
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Author's reply p. 682
Prashant Narhari, Amber Haseeb, Serene Lee, Vivek Ajit Singh
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_141_18  
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Handbook of fracture classifications p. 684
Sushrut Babhulkar
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_442_18  
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PROFILE Top

Legends of Indian orthopedics: Prof. Niranjan Das Aggarwal p. 685
Mandeep Singh Dhillon
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_484_18  
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OBITUARY Top

Obituary of Dr. Sailen Bhattacharya: A legend of Indian orthopedics p. 687
Deven K Taneja
DOI:10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_476_18  
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