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   Table of Contents - Current issue
March-April 2018
Volume 52 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 97-215

Online since Tuesday, March 6, 2018

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Rejection of manuscripts: Problems and solutions Highly accessed article p. 97
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan-Ul-Haq
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Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis p. 100
Anil K Jain, Karan Raj Jaggi, Himanshu Bhayana, Rumpa Saha
Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB) is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%–30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT) for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST); however, the high turn around time of 2–6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.
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Complications associated with locking plate of proximal humerus fractures p. 108
Venkat Kavuri, Blake Bowden, Neil Kumar, Doug Cerynik
Proximal humerus fractures constitute a significant percentage of fragility fractures. The growing use of locking plate has helped treat this problem, but at the same time has brought about complications. Past systematic reviews have documented these complications, however a large number of recent studies have been published since, reporting their own complication rates with different techniques. This study reviews the current complications associated with locking plate of proximal humerus fractures as well as methods to reduce them. A systematic review, following the PRISMA guidelines, was conducted in November 2013 and repeated in March 2015, using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases, to evaluate locking plate fixation (and complications) of traumatic proximal humerus fractures. Inclusion criteria included adults (>18 years), minimum of 12-month postoperative followup, articles within the last 5 years, and studies with >10 participants. Exclusion criteria included pathologic fractures, cadaveric studies, and nonhuman subjects. Eligible studies were graded using a quality scoring system. Articles with a minimum of 7/10 score were included and assessed regarding their level of evidence per the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery and Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. The initial query identified 51,206 articles from multiple databases. These records were thoroughly screened and resulted in 57 articles, consisting of seven Level 1, three Level 2, 10 Level 3, and 37 Level 4 studies, totaling 3422 proximal humerus fractures treated with locking plates. Intraarticular screw penetration was the most reported complication (9.5%), followed by varus collapse (6.8%), subacromial impingement (5.0%), avascular necrosis (4.6%), adhesive capsulitis (4.0%), nonunion (1.5%), and deep infection (1.4%). Reoperation occurred at a rate of 13.8%. Collapse at the fracture site contributed to a majority of the implant-related complications, which in turn were the main reasons for reoperation. The authors of these studies discussed different techniques that could be used to address these issues. Expanding use of locking plate in the proximal humerus fractures leads to improvements and advancements in surgical technique. Further research is necessary to outline indications to decrease complications, further.
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Is combined administration of tranexamic acid better than both intravenous and topical regimes for total loss, hidden loss and post-operative swelling? a randomized control trial p. 117
Jatin Prakash, Jong-Keun Seon, Eun-Kyoo Song, Dong-Hyun Lee, Hong-Yeol Yang, Cheng Jin
Background: Bleeding is one of the unavoidable complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Tranexamic acid (TXA) in last decade has emerged as an effective and safe way to decrease postoperative bleeding and transfusion rates. Although there is little doubt on the efficacy of the drug, the debate on ideal mode is more recent. We undertook this study to find out the most effective and yet safest way of TXA administration. Materials and Methods: A single institution - two hospital-based, double-blinded, prospective, randomized control trial was conducted from January 2015 to December 2015. One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided in one of the three groups using computer-generated tables - intravenous (IV), intraarticular and combined. Evident loss through drain, total loss based on gross method and hemoglobin balance method, hidden blood losses, hemoglobin, and hematocrit drop, all possible complications related to TXA were evaluated and compared among groups. The analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc were used for continuous outcome variables and Chi-square test for binary outcome variables. Results: Evident loss in combined group was 574.25 ± 209.8 ml, significantly less than IV (685.4 ± 289.9 ml) and intraarticular group (724.3 ± 246.8 ml). Total loss was similarly least for combined group (930.1 ± 262.2 ml) compared to IV (1208.3 ± 368.8 ml) and intraarticular group (1198.1 ± 356.8 ml). There were no transfusions in combined group compared to five in IV and four in intraarticular group. Combined group also had least hidden losses after surgery. No patients in any group developed symptomatic deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion: Combined administration of drug is most effective way to decrease postoperative bleeding and requirement of transfusion in unilateral TKA without increasing any risk of complications.
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Total hip arthroplasty by the direct anterior approach using a neck-preserving stem: Safety, efficacy and learning curve p. 124
Aditya Khemka, Omar Mograby, Sarah J Lord, Zelda Doyle, Munjed Al Muderis
Background: The concept of femoral neck preservation in total hip replacement (THR) was introduced in 1993. It is postulated that retaining cortical bone of the femoral neck offers triplanar stability, uniform stress distribution, and accommodates physiological anteversion. However, data on safety, efficacy and learning curve are lacking. Materials and Methods: We prospectively assessed all patients who were operated for a THR with a short neck preserving stem (MiniHip) between 2012 and 2014. The safety and learning curve were assessed by recording operative time; stem size; and adverse events including periprosthetic fracture; paresthesia; and limb length discrepancy (LLD). The cohort was divided into equal groups to assess the learning curve effect, and the cumulative sums (CUSUM) test was performed to monitor intraoperative neck fractures. For assessment of efficacy, Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: 138 patients with median age 62 years (range 35–82 years) were included with a median followup of 42 months (range 30–56 months). The minimum followup was 2.5 years. The OHS, SF-36 (physical and mental component) scores improved by a mean score of 26, 28, and 27 points, respectively. All patients had LLD of <10 mm (1.9 mm ± 1.3). Adverse events included intraoperative neck fracture (n = 6), subsidence (n = 1), periprosthetic fracture (n = 1), paresthesia (n = 12), and trochanteric bursitis (n = 2). After early modification of the technique to use a smaller finishing broach, the CUSUM test demonstrated acceptable intraoperative neck fracture risk. The second surgery group had a reduced risk of intraoperative neck fracture (5/69 vs. 1/69 P = 0.2), reduced operative time (66 vs. 61 min, P = 0.06), and increased stem size (5 vs. 6, P = 0.09) although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The MiniHip stem is safe alternative to standard THR with good functional outcomes but with a learning curve for the surgical technique, implants sizing, and the risk of intraoperative neck fractures.
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Short term outcome of varus derotation osteotomy in late presenting perthes disease p. 133
Narendra Joshi, Soumya Shrikanta Mohapatra, Mahaveer Prasad Goyal, Shiv Kumar Goyal, Rakesh Kumar, Mukesh Saini
Background: Untreated Perthes disease can lead to osteoarthritis by the fourth decade. The treatment is conservative for children <6 years, operative within the age group of 6–9 years. Late onset Perthes, older than 9 years or more, are notorious with the aggressive course with poor outcome. However, literature do not come to a consensus between conservative and operative management. This study evaluates the clinical and radiological outcome of varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in Perthes disease presenting late with age 8 years or more. Materials and Methods: 15 children (13 males and 2 females) with the mean age of 9.4 years belonging to modified Elizabethtown classification Stage IB, IIA, IIB treated with open wedge VDRO between 2008 and 2014 were included in this study. Seven patients (46.67%) were of >10 years of age at presentation. All patients had limitation of abduction and internal rotation. Eight patients (53.33%) had pain at the hip and 12 patients (80%) had limp. Mean time between diagnosis and corrective surgery was 3 weeks. Results: The evaluation was done using caput index (CI) and epiphyseal quotient (EQ) and articulotrochanteric distance radiologically, range of motion and Harris Hip Score for clinical outcome. All the measurements were carried out on pre- and postoperative X-rays after 3 years followup and compared with the contralateral normal hip. After a mean followup period of 3.4 years, we noted the statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative values. We noted that all (100%) children in Stage IB, IIA and 50% children in Stage IIB achieved satisfactory results. There was a significant change (P = 0.000) in CI among all the patients after surgery. The final EQ after 3 years of VDRO was 0.606 and was significant (P = 0.0000). Conclusion: In our opinion, based on the encouraging short term radiological and clinical outcomes, VDRO may be regarded as a treatment procedure for late presenting Perthes disease in stage IB, IIA, IIB.
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Epidemiological profile of femoral head osteonecrosis in the North Indian population p. 140
Harsha Vardhan, Sujit Kumar Tripathy, Ramesh Kumar Sen, Sameer Aggarwal, Tarun Goyal
Background: There are limited studies on the epidemiology of femoral head osteonecrosis in Indian population. This study was designed to look for the risk factors of osteonecrosis hip and to assess the severity as per radiological staging (Association Research Circulation Osseous [ARCO]) and clinical score (Harris hip score [HHS]). Materials and Methods: 249 patients (382 hips) of osteonecrosis femoral head (ONFH) who were evaluated at our center between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2013, were included in this retrospective study. The details of history, clinical examination, radiological grading, and HHS were entered into a proforma. Results: The mean age was 34.71 years (range 14-70 years) and 70.28% (n=175) patients were between 20 and 40 years. Male to female ratio was 5:1. Bilateral ONFH was observed in 53.41% (n=133) patients. In atraumatic conditions, bilateral involvement was seen in 61.61% (130/211) patients. Steroid administration (37.3%, 93/249) was most commonly observed in the patients followed by idiopathic in 21.3% (53/249) patients, chronic alcohol consumption in 20.1% (50/249) patients, and trauma in 15.3% (38/249) patients. There were 48% (185/382) hips in ARCO Stage 2 followed by 33% (125/382) in Stage 3 and 16% (61/382) in Stage 4. The mean HHS was 80.97 ± 14.35 in unilateral ONFH. The mean HHS was 72.79 ± 14.43 and 80.07 ± 13.52 in more involved hip and in less involved hip, respectively, in bilateral ONFH. The ARCO staging had statistically significant correlation with HHS (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = −0.783, P < 0.01) in unilateral ONFH patients and more severely affected hip in bilateral (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = −0.654, P < 0.01) ONFH, but it did not show any association with less involved hip in bilateral cases. Conclusion: ONFH in the North Indian patients is a disease of young individuals with male predominance. Steroid intake is most commonly observed in these patients followed by idiopathic, chronic alcohol consumption, and trauma.
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Comparative study for evaluating efficacy of fascia iliaca compartment block for alleviating pain of positioning for spinal anesthesia in patients with hip and proximal femur fractures Highly accessed article p. 147
Nirav Jentilal Kacha, Chetna A Jadeja, Pooja J Patel, Harshda B Chaudhari, Jatin R Jivani, Vandana S Pithadia
Background: Patient positioning for performing spinal blockade causes severe pain in hip and femur fracture. Adequate pain relief before administrating spinal blockade will increase patient's cooperation. This study was done to assess analgesic effect of fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) for positioning for spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double blind, controlled prospective study that included 100 patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statuses I to III, of either sex, between 30 and 90 years, posted for hip or proximal femoral surgery, with visual analogue scale (VAS) >3 in preoperative period. The two groups were assigned randomly. In Group 1, FICB was given half an hour before shifting the patients in operation theater with 30 ml of 0.25% ropivacaine, and in Group 2, sham block was given with 30 ml normal saline. Each group included 50 patients. Thirty minutes after FICB, spinal anesthesia was given and patients' vitals were monitored before and after block, at the time of positioning for spinal anesthesia, intraoperative and postoperative periods. Results: In Group 1, mean VAS before FICB was 8.02 which reduced to 2.28, which is statistically significant (P = 7.8813E-50), whereas in Group 2, mean VAS before sham block was 7.98 which reduced to 7.90, which is statistically nonsignificant (P = 0.6694). Mean total duration of analgesia in Group 1 was 428.3 min after spinal anesthesia, whereas in Group 2, mean total duration of analgesia was 240.1 min. Conclusion: FICB effectively provides analgesia for positioning for spinal anesthesia to patients in hip and proximal femur surgeries. It also provides analgesia in postoperative period without having significant alteration in the hemodynamic profile of patients.
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Total knee arthroplasty using patient-specific blocks after prior femoral fracture without hardware removal Highly accessed article p. 154
Raju Vaishya, Vipul Vijay, Amit K Agarwal
Background: The options to perform total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with retained hardware in femur are mainly – removal of hardware, use of extramedullary guide, or computer-assisted surgery. Patient-specific blocks (PSBs) have been introduced with many potential advantages, but their use in retained hardware has not been adequately explored. The purpose of the present study was to outline and assess the usefulness of the PSBs in performing TKA in patients with retained femoral hardware. Materials and Materials and Methods: Nine patients with retained femoral hardware underwent TKA using PSBs. All the surgeries were performed by the same surgeon using same implants. Nine cases (7 males and 2 females) out of total of 120 primary TKA had retained hardware. The average age of the patients was 60.55 years. The retained hardware were 6 patients with nails, 2 with plates and one patient had screws. Out of the nine cases, only one patient needed removal of a screw which was hindering placement of pin for the PSB. Results: All the patients had significant improvement in their Knee Society Score (KSS) which improved from 47.0 to postoperative KSS of 86.77 (P < 0.00). The mechanical axis was significantly improved (P < 0.03) after surgery. No patient required blood transfusion and the average tourniquet time was 41 min. Conclusion: TKA using PSBs is useful and can be used in patients with retained hardware with good functional and radiological outcome.
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Complex tibial plateau fractures treated by hybrid external fixation system: A correlation of followup computed tomography derived quality of reduction with clinical results p. 161
Konstantinos Kateros, Spyridon P Galanakos, Georgios Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios A Papadakis, George A Macheras
Background: Tibial plateau fractures are common due to high energy injuries. The principles of treatment include respect for the soft tissues, restoring the congruity of the articular surface and reduction of the anatomic alignment of the lower limb to enable early movement of the knee joint. There are various surgical fixation methods that can achieve these principles of treatment. Recognition of the particular fracture pattern is important, as this guides the surgical approach required in order to adequately stabilize the fracture. This study evaluates the results of the combined treatment of external fixator and limited internal fixation along with the advantages using postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan after implant removal. Materials and Methods: 55 patients with a mean age of 42 years (range 17–65 years) with tibial plateau fracture, were managed in our institution between October 2010 and September 2013., Twenty fractures were classified as Schatzker VI and 35 as Schatzker V. There were 8 open fractures (2 Gustilo Anderson 3A and 6 Gustilo Anderson 2). All fractures were treated with closed reduction and hybrid external fixation (n = 21/38.2%) or with minimal open reduction internal fixation and a hybrid system (n = 34/61.8%). After the removal of the fixators, CT-scan was programmed for all the cases, for correlation with the results. At final followup, the American Knee Society Score (AKSS) was administered. Results: All patients were evaluated with a minimum of 12 months (range 12–21 months) followup. Average time to union was 15.5 weeks (range 13–19 weeks). The postoperative joint congruity as evaluated in the postoperative CT-scan was <2 mm of articular step-off in 8 patients (14.5%), between 2 and 4 mm in 18 patients (32.7%) and over 4 mm in 29 (52.7%). The injured limb mechanical axis was restored within 5° compared to the contralateral limb in 36 cases (65%) and with an angulation >5° in 19 cases (35%). Patients with residual joint depression <3.5 mm had a 95% chance of having excellent AKSS knee score results and 80% chance of having excellent AKSS function scores. On the other hand, residual joint depression of >4.5 mm displayed a 100% chance of getting poor-fair scores both in AKSS knee and AKSS function score. The association of a postoperative mechanical axis within 5° of the contralateral limb and improved knee scores was statistically significant for the AKSS function and total scores but not for the AKSS knee score. The AKSS was negatively correlated with postoperative joint depression magnitude which was statistically significant. Only the amount of joint collapse was verified as a prognostic factor in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: The postoperative CT-scan shows important information about bone healing, and an exact image of the reduction and the shaft alignment. Postoperative radiographs may have led to an underestimation of the degree of residual displacement. On the contrary, CT-scan demonstrates the exact grade of articular displacement and depending on CT-scan results one can better manage the postoperative rehabilitation.
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Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft without implant on tibial side p. 170
Skand Sinha, Ananta Kumar Naik, Mridul Maheshwari, Sumedh Sandanshiv, Durgashankar Meena, Rajendra K Arya
Background: Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Materials and Methods: Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. Results: The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases. None had a failure of graft till final followup. Conclusion: Attachment sparing hamstring graft without a tibial implant is a simple, cost-effective technique that provides a consistently satisfactory outcome.
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Sloppy hinge prosthetic replacement in old healed side swipe injuries of elbow – long term results p. 177
Debadyuti Baksi, AK Pal, DP Baksi
Background: Sideswipe injuries of elbow often poses significant functional loss resulting from devastating injuries involving osseoligamentous structures as well as multilevel soft tissue injuries around the elbow. Inspite of treatment, no conscientious treatment opinion is available in the literature to provide optimum functional outcome. The objective of this study is to evaluate the results of prosthetic replacement of old healed sideswipe injuries of elbow with gross dysfunctional disabilities resulting from loss of bones and muscles around the joint. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients of 2–3 years old healed sideswipe injuries of the elbow, treated by Baksi sloppy hinge (original version in seven and recent version in seven) prosthetic replacement were evaluated. All had normal neurovascular status except two; one having ulnar nerve deficit the other median nerve in another. The mean age was 42.7 years (range 32-61 years). Results: The average followup period was 13.5 years (range 5.11-23.11 years). Ten patients regained stable 0° to 130° elbow flexion, and four had restricted terminal flexion with arc 10°–115° following V-Y plasty of contracted triceps. Mean supination was 22° and mean pronation was 35°. According to Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), excellent results were in five (35.7%), good in six (42.8%), and fair in one (7.1%). Two patients (14.2%) needed removal of prosthesis due to intractable delayed infection and considered failure. Following removal, the resected elbow retained relatively stable motions due to mature fibrous tissues connecting the adjacent bone ends and reorientation of muscle balance. Postoperative improvement of MEPS (mean 84) was significant (P = 0.0037) compared to preoperative value (mean 41.7). Two patients had superficial wound infection and five aseptic loosening of which one was symptomatic. Conclusion: Prosthetic replacement of elbow is an effective salvage procedure in old healed sideswipe injuries.
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A scoring system to demonstrate the risk for bone injury in patients with clinically suspected or occult scaphoid fracture p. 184
H Bahadir Gokcen, Mehmet Akif Akcal, Koray Unay, Selahattin Ozyurek, Oguz Poyanli, Irfan Esenkaya
Background: It is important to diagnose a scaphoid fracture accurately and start the correct treatment in the shortest time possible. However, the fracture of bone may not be visible on x-ray. In such cases, patients are clinically diagnosed with suspected or occult scaphoid fractures. The aim of this study was to define a scoring system based on physical examination to demonstrate the risk for bone injury in patients with clinically suspected and occult scaphoid fractures with negative radiographs and anatomical snuff box tenderness and to decrease the costs and workforce loss due to unnecessary treatment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Patients were initially evaluated by the attendant orthopedic physician in the emergency service with X-ray of the wrist, and ten wrist physical examination techniques were used. The X-rays of patients were evaluated by three orthopedic surgeons. Finally sixty patients, who were diagnosed as having no fracture by all three orthopedic surgeon, were included in the study. The wrists of these patients were evaluated with MRI. Results: There were 46 male (77%) and 14 female (23%) patients with a mean age of 21.5 years (range 7–61 years). About 3.3% had triquetrum fracture, 15% had bone edema in the scaphoid and radius, 18.3% had distal radius fracture, 31.6% had scaphoid fracture, and 31.8% had no bone injury. A scoring system was also proposed. It can be predicted that in the physical examination of the wrist if the total score is higher than 6.5, the probability of fracture is 2.87 (positive likelihood ratio) fold compared to scores below 6.5. Conclusions: Proposal of this new scoring system was thought to be useful for predicting the risk for bone injury in patients with clinically suspected scaphoid fractures and making decision regarding therapeutic options.
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Sagittal atlantoaxial joint inclination and reduction index values for diagnosis and treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial Dislocation p. 190
Shi-Long Yuan, Hong-Mei Xu, Lian-Chong Fu, Jin Cao, Jian-Kun Yang, Yong-Ming Xi
Background: Irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) is a disorder of atlantoaxial joint instability with various causes. The diagnostic criteria for IAAD are variable. The diagnosis of IAAD is mainly based on preoperative and intraoperative traction results, as well as the physician's experience, with no relatively uniform guidelines for the selection of treatment. This study evaluates sagittal atlantoaxial joint inclination (SAAJI) and reduction index (RI) values for diagnosis and treatment of IAAD. Materials and Methods: 24 IAAD patients treated in our hospital from January 2008 to July 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Patients included were 13 males and 11 females, with a mean age of 43 years. The various causes for IAAD were atlantoaxial transverse ligament rupture (n=3), old dens fracture (n=15), occipitalization of the atlas (n=6). The patients were divided into two groups. group A underwent anterior release with posterior reduction and fixation; Group B underwent posterior reduction and fixation; 12 healthy individuals served as controls. SAAJI and atlas-dens interval (ADI) values before and after traction were measured, and RI was calculated. Imaging data were analyzed. Results: The mean SAAJI values were as follows: left, 5.6 ± 1.9° and right, 5.1 ± 2.1° in the control group; right, 39.5 ± 6.0° and left, 38.8 ± 5.8° in Group A; and right, 23.1 ± 7.0° and left, 23.9 ± 6.1° in Group B. There was no significant difference in the SAAJI values of the three groups (P < 0.05). The mean RIs in Groups A and B were 17.6 ± 9.3% and 34.4 ± 5.2%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were obvious negative correlations between the SAAJI and RI values in Groups A and B. Conclusions: SAAJI and RI can be used as important imaging indicators to determine the reversibility of IAAD. If the RI value is >27.9% and SAAJI value is <32.5°, reduction and fixation can be achieved by the posterior approach alone; otherwise, a combination of anterior and posterior approaches would be necessary.
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Error analysis: How precise is fused deposition modeling in fabrication of bone models in comparison to the parent bones? p. 196
MV Reddy, Krishnakiran Eachempati, AV Gurava Reddy, Aakash Mugalur
Background: Rapid prototyping (RP) is used widely in dental and faciomaxillary surgery with anecdotal uses in orthopedics. The purview of RP in orthopedics is vast. However, there is no error analysis reported in the literature on bone models generated using office-based RP. This study evaluates the accuracy of fused deposition modeling (FDM) using standard tessellation language (STL) files and errors generated during the fabrication of bone models. Materials and Methods: Nine dry bones were selected and were computed tomography (CT) scanned. STL files were procured from the CT scans and three-dimensional (3D) models of the bones were printed using our in-house FDM based 3D printer using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) filament. Measurements were made on the bone and 3D models according to data collection procedures for forensic skeletal material. Statistical analysis was performed to establish interobserver co-relation for measurements on dry bones and the 3D bone models. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.0 software to analyze the collected data. Results: The inter-observer reliability was established using intra-class coefficient for both the dry bones and the 3D models. The mean of absolute difference is 0.4 that is very minimal. The 3D models are comparable to the dry bones. Conclusions: STL file dependent FDM using ABS material produces near-anatomical 3D models. The high 3D accuracy hold a promise in the clinical scenario for preoperative planning, mock surgery, and choice of implants and prostheses, especially in complicated acetabular trauma and complex hip surgeries.
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Histological observation of the retinacula of weitbrecht and its clinical significance: A cadaveric study p. 202
Bang Dou, Jiong Mei, Zhiyuan Wang, Ming Ni, Guangyao Jia, Shiwei Liu
Background: The retinacular arteries provide major supply to the femoral head, their injuries may lead to the femoral head necrosis (FHN) in femoral neck fractures. Although the femoral neck fracture was seriously displaced in some patients, FHN did not occur, which suggests that the blood supply is not fully blocked. This study was aimed to find the association between the structure of the retinacula of Weitbrecht and the mechanism of protecting retinacular arteries from being injured. Materials and Methods: Fourteen formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens (in 28 hips) with no significant vascular disease were observed. The retinacula were cut longitudinally and then cut into three parts: medial, middle, and lateral. These specimens were stained using hematoxylin and eosin and improved Masson Trichrome stain. The microstructure and tightness of the retinacula fixed to the bone and the distribution of vessels were examined under a stereoscope, an optical microscope, and a scanning electron microscope. Results: The microstructure and compactness in each part of retinacula were different, and the tightness of the fibers of the retinacula fixed to the bone in each part were different. A particular structure which resembled a Sandwich panels was observed, and it may be an effective mechanism of protecting retinacular arteries. Conclusion: The Sandwich panels structure existed generally in the retinacula of Weitbrecht, and this sandwich panelture may play very important role in protecting the retinaculum artery from being injured, which show the importance of protecting the retinacular artery in the treatment of femoral neck fractures.
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Surgical treatment of sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures using a sinus tarsi approach p. 209
Ankit Khurana, Mandeep S Dhillon
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Author's reply p. 210
Chul Hyun Park, Dong Yeol Lee
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Making the surgeons safe in India p. 212
Raju Vaishya, Lalit Maini, Abhishek Vaish
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Surgical treatment of orthopaedic trauma: A comprehensive text and video guide p. 214
Anil K Jain
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Legends of Indian orthopedics: Pramod Karan Sethi p. 215
Bhavuk Garg
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