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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May-June 2015
Volume 49 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 265-371

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Nonsurgical factors of digital replantation and survival rate A metaanalysis p. 265
Huawei Yu, Li Wei, Bing Liang, Shujian Hou, Jinle Wang, Yinrong Yang
The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation) on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.
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Morphometric analysis of the seventh cervical vertebra for pedicle screw insertion p. 272
Wensheng Liao, Liangbing Guo, Heng Bao, Limin Wang
Background: Anatomy of the pedicles of the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) at the cervicothoracic junction is different from other cervical vertebrae. Fixation of C7 is required during cervical vertebra and upper thoracic injuries in clinical practice. However, the typical pedicle screw insertion methods may have problems in clinical practice based on the anatomical features of C7. This study is to explore a new pedicle screw insertion technique for C7 and to provide anatomical and radiographic basis for clinical application. Materials and Methods: C7 vertebral specimens from six human cadavers were observed for the relative position between the posterior bony landmark and the pedicle projection. Computed tomography (CT) was performed for 30 patients with cervical spondylosis (26-61 years old, mean age was 42.3 years old). The CT scan data were processed by Mimics 8.1 software for associated parameter measurement. Appropriate screw entry points (Eps) and insertion angles were selected. A total of 12 pedicle screws were inserted and then observed. The six specimens were observed after inserting the screw using this method.The junction site of the middle 1/3 and outer 1/3 segment of line G [The junction between point A (the intersection point of the superior margin of the lamina of C7 and the medial margin of the superior articular process) and point B (the intersection point of the lateral margin of the inferior articular process and the transverse process) ] was taken as the Ep. The screw insertion direction parallel horizontally to the upper terminal lamina of C7 and the sagittal angle was between 35° and 45°. Results: Gross and imaging observations revealed that pedicle projection was on the line (line G) between point A (the intersection point of the superior margin of the lamina of C7 and the medial margin of the superior articular process) and point B (the intersection point of the lateral margin of the inferior articular process and the transverse process) and located at the middle 1/3 and outer 1/3 segments of the line (point L[also it is the screw entry points (Eps)]. No significant difference in the measurements on the left and right sides were observed (P > 0.05). No penetration of the 12 screws through pedicle was observed. Conclusion: The junction site of the middle 1/3 and outer 1/3 segments of line G are the projection points of C7 pedicles on the lateral mass. The junction site anatomical position was simply and easy to be controlled during surgery, simultaneously avoided uncertainty of other methods. This study provides a new method for determining an Ep for C7 pedicle screw insertion.
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Mini posterior lumbar interbody fusion with presacral screw stabilization in early lumbosacral instability p. 278
Arjun Shetty, Abhishek R Kini, A Chacko, Upadhyaya Sunil, K Vinod, Lobo Geover
Background: Surgical options for the management of early lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with instability vary from open lumbar interbody fusion with transpedicular fixation to a variety of minimal access fusion and fixation procedures. We have used a combination of micro discectomy and axial lumbosacral interbody fusion with presacral screw fixation to treat symptomatic patients with lumbosacral spondylolisthesis or lumbosacral degenerative disc disease, which needed surgical stabilization. This study describes the above technique along with analysis of results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients with symptomatic lumbosacral (L5-S1) instability and degenerative lumbosacral disc disease were treated by micro discectomy and interbody fusion using presacral screw stabilization. Patients with history of bowel, bladder dysfunction and local anorectal diseases were excluded from this study. Postoperatively all patients were evaluated neurologically and radiologically for screw position, fusion and stability. Oswestry disability index was used to evaluate results. Results: We had nine females and three males with a mean age of 47.33 years (range 26-68 years). Postoperative assessment revealed three patients to have screw placed in anterior 1/4 th of the 1 st sacral body, in rest nine the screws were placed in the posterior 3/4 th of sacral body. At 2 years followup, eight patients (67%) showed evidence of bridging trabeculae at bone graft site and none of the patients showed evidence of instability or implant failure. Conclusion: Presacral screw fixation along with micro discectomy is an effective procedure to manage early symptomatic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with instability.
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Outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion for L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis p. 284
Hiroyuki Hayashi, Hideki Murakami, Satoru Demura, Satoshi Kato, Norio Kawahara, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
Background: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become the standard in the treatment for degenerative spondylolisthesis since improvement of spinal instrumentation However, few published studies have reported long term outcomes of PLIF using a same surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a long term outcome of PLIF using a same surgical procedure for L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 patients who underwent L4-L5 PLIF for degenerative spondylolisthesis between 1995 and 2003, 37 patients (16 males and 21 females) were evaluated in this study. Mean age was 61.8 years. The average followup period was 121 months. We evaluated % slip, lordosis at L4/L5, lumbar lordosis, Japanese Orthopedic Association's (JOA) score and adjacent segment degeneration. Results: The % slip significantly improved from an average of 17.0% before surgery to 9.7% at the last followup. Lordosis at L4/L5 averaged 3.6° before surgery, 8.2° after surgery and 6.9° at the last followup. Although patients experienced some loss of correction at last followup, their lordosis at L4/L5 at last followup still was significantly different from their lordosis at L4/L5 before surgery. Lumbar lordosis did not significantly change. Mean JOA score was 13.4 before surgery and 24.5 at the last followup; mean recovery ratio was 71.2%. Adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 40.5% of patients, almost all of which occurred in the cranial adjacent segment. Three patients (8.1%) required reoperation due to adjacent segment degeneration, at an average of 76 months after their initial surgery. Conclusions: With more than 10-year followup after L4-L5 PLIF for degenerative spondylolisthesis, the adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 40.5% and reoperation was required in 8.1%.
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Diffusion tensor imaging observation in Pott's spine with or without neurological deficit p. 289
Sohail Abbas, Anil Kumar Jain, Namita Singh Saini, Sudhir Kumar, Rajagopalan Mukunth, Jaswant Kumar, Pawan Kumar, Prabhjot Kaur
Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is based upon the phenomenon of water diffusion known as "Brownian motion." DTI can detect changes in compressed spinal cord earlier than magnetic resonance imaging and is more sensitive to subtle pathological changes of the spinal cord. DTI observation in compressed and noncompressed spinal cord in tuberculosis (TB) spine is not described. This study presents observations in Pott's spine patients with or without neural deficit. Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive cases of TB spine with mean age of 32.1 years of either sexes with paradiscal lesion, with/without paraplegia divided into two groups: Group A: (n = 15) without paraplegia and group B: (n = 15) with paraplegia were evaluated by DTI. The average fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated at 3 different sites, above the lesion (SOL)/normal, at the lesion and below SOL for both groups and mean was compared. Visual impression of tractography was done to document changes in spinal tracts. Results: The mean canal encroachment in group A was 39.60% and group B 44.4% (insignificant). Group A mean FA values above SOL, at the lesion and below SOL were 0.608 ± 0.09, 0.554 ± 0.14, and 0.501 ± 0.16 respectively. For group B mean FA values above SOL, at the lesion and below SOL were 0.628 ± 0.09, 0.614 ± 0.12 and 0.487 ± 0.15 respectively. There was a significant difference in mean FA above the SOL as compared to the mean FA at and below SOL. P value above versus below the SOL was statistically significant for both groups (0.04), but P value for at versus below the SOL (0.01) was statistically significant only in group B. On tractography, disruption of fiber tract at SOL was found in 14/15 (93.3%) cases of group A and 14/15 cases (93.3%) of group B (6/6 grade 4, 3/3 grade 3 and 5/6 grade 2 paraplegic cases). Conclusion: The FA and MD above the lesion were same as reported for healthy volunteer hence can be taken as control. FA increases, and MD decreases at SOL in severe grade of paraplegia because of epidural collection while in milder grade, both decrease. In group A (without neurological deficit), mean FA and MD in patients with and without canal encroachment was similar. On tractography, both groups A and B (with or without neurological deficit) showed disruption of fiber tract at SOL and thickness of distally traced spinal cord was appreciably less than the upper cord. FA and MD could not differentiate between various grades of paraplegia. Although the number of patients in each group are small.
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Subacromial volume and rotator cuff tears Does an association exist? p. 300
Anthony Yi, Ioannis A Avramis, Evan H Argintar, Eric R White, Diego C Villacis, George F Rick Hatch
Background: Rotator cuff pathology occurs commonly and its cause is likely multifocal in origin. The development and progression of rotator cuff injury, especially in relation to extrinsic shoulder compression, remain unclear. Traditionally, certain acromial morphologies have been thought to contribute to rotator cuff injury by physically decreasing the subacromial space. The relationship between subacromial space volume and rotator cuff tears (RCT) has, however, never been experimentally confirmed. In this study, we retrospectively compared a control patient population to patients with partial or complete RCTs in an attempt to quantify the relationship between subacromial volume and tear type. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified a total of 46 eligible patients who each had shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed from January to December of 2008. These patients were stratified into control, partial RCT, and full-thickness RCT groups. Subacromial volume was estimated for each patient by averaging five sequential MRI measurements of subacromial cross-sectional areas. These volumes were compared between control and experimental groups using the Student's t-test. Results: With the numbers available, there was no statistically significant difference in subacromial volume measured between: the control group and patients diagnosed partial RCT (P > 0.339), the control group and patients with complete RCTs (P > 0.431). Conclusion: We conclude that subacromial volumes cannot be reliably used to predict RCT type.
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Results of reconstruction of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears using a fascia lata allograft p. 304
Varvitsiotis Dimitrios, Papaspiliopoulos Athanasios, Antipa Eleni, Papacharalampous Xenofon, Flevarakis George, Feroussis John
Background: Despite the advances in surgical treatment options, massive rotator cuff (r-c) tears still represent a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. This study assesses the effectiveness of fascia lata allograft in reconstruction of massive and irreparable r-c tear and to evaluate the healing and functional outcomes. Materials and Methods: 68 patients (38 men, 30 women, mean age 64.9 years) with massive or irreparable r-c tears were treated with placement of fascia lata allograft to fill the defect between February 2006 and February 2010. At 43 months followup they were evaluated clinically using the constant score, preoperatively and postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound were used postoperatively, to assess the integrity of the allograft at the repair site. Postoperatively, standard rehabilitation protocol was followed with gradual restoration. Results: Postoperative constant score increased from 32.5 preoperatively to 88.7 postoperatively. The most important was the pain relief from 2.4 preoperatively to 14.1 postoperatively and range of motion. The results of the MRI were not reliable, but the ultrasound was satisfactory. Finally, there was no infection or rejection of the graft in any of the patients. Conclusions: Despite advances in surgical methods, there is still not a universally accepted treatment for massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears, because the standard methods have dubious results, with excessive retear rates and poor outcomes, necessitating the need for new repair strategies. We documented significant clinical improvement using fascia lata allograft in the repair of massive irreparable r-c tear, acting as scaffold to bridge the defect, enhancing the healing at the repair site.
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Open proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of the hand treated by theta fixation p. 312
Binu Prathap Thomas, R Sreekanth, Samuel C Raj Pallapati
Background: Many implants and techniques are used for the treatment of open phalangeal fractures with varying grades of stability. The ubiquitous and simple Kirschner (K) wiring does not provide adequate stability to allow early mobilization of fingers. Lister described a combination of coronal interosseous wire and oblique K-wire technique for phalangeal fracture fixation with a stable construct that allowed early mobilization. Due to the fancied resemblance of this construct to the Greek alphabet è (theta), we have referred to this as the theta fixation. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with open proximal phalangeal shaft (transverse) fractures were treated with theta fixation between January and June 2010. Outcome was analysed in terms of stability, early mobilization, fracture healing and function of hand. They were graded according to the Belsky score. Results: 90% patients were graded excellent and 10% good, with none having fair or poor results. All fractures allowed the mobilization at a mean of 2.9 days and all healed at an average of 6.1 weeks. No loss of stability was seen on followup X-rays. All patients returned to their old profession. Conclusion: The theta fixation technique is a safe, simple and effective method for open transverse phalangeal fractures with results comparable to other techniques. This method gives superior fracture stability to allow early mobilization of joints and thus early return of function. It is also a cost effective way of management for the developing world.
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Early results of revision acetabular cup using antiprotrusio reconstruction rings and allografts p. 317
Krzysztof Kmiec, Tomasz Tomasz, Grzegorzewski Andrzej, Marek Synder, Piotr Kozlowski, Marcin Sibinski
Background: Hip arthroplasty is one of the most frequently performed orthopedic procedures with high scores of success while its most common complication is aseptic loosening of the acetabular component, which may result from host bone loss or even from pelvis discontinuity. The purpose of the study was to evaluate results in patients after revision acetabular arthroplasty with reconstruction rings and allografts. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data was collected from 69 revisions of acetabular components, performed in a group of 69 treated patients (the mean age 65.1 years). Before surgery, the patients had bone defects of type IIb (n = 5), IIc (n = 20), IIIa (n = 27) or IIIb (n = 17), according to Paprosky et al. Results: The mean followup period of the patients was 7.2 years (range 3-19 years). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a 3- and 10 year survival rate was 92.8% and 84.8% respectively, using further revision for any reason of the acetabular device as an end point. Eight patients revealed implant related complications. Four patients presented with ring loosening, one with a loose acetabular polyethylene cup, two hips demonstrated recurrent dislocations and one patient was with deep infection. Regarding the remaining 61 patients without re-revision surgery, the mean Harris hip score improved from 30.5 to 73.8 points. Conclusion: A modified, antiprotrusion cage provides an acceptable survival rate and radiological results, but complications could still be expected. It seems that the observed massive bone loss with pelvic discontinuity and an insufficient fixation of the cage to the ischium may result in implant loosening. Stable fixation of the ischial ring flange with screws is an essential condition to expect a good outcome.
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WHOQOL-BREF Hindi questionnaire: Quality of life assessment in acetabular fracture patients p. 323
Umesh K Meena, Ramesh K Sen, Prateek Behera, Sujith K Tripathy, Sameer Aggrawal, Sreekanth R Rajoli
Background: The incidence of acetabular fractures in India has increased over the past years but so has the operating skills of pelvi-acetabular trauma surgeons. The outcomes of surgical management need to be assessed so as to be able to devise proper treatment plan and execute the same during and after surgery, which in turn requires assessment of quality of life indices as well as functional scores. While there are studies assessing Harris Hip scores (HHS) and world health organization quality of life BREF (WHOQOL BREF) in the western population there is no study which assesses the same in Indian population. We designed this study to evaluate and define reference values for use of WHOQOL BREF Hindi scores in QOL Assessment in patients with acetabular fractures and to assess the relationship between it and HHS. Materials and Methods: 118 patients with acetabular fractures who were treated surgically were included in this retrospective study. Assessment of reduction quality (Matta's radiological criteria), clinical outcome (HHS) and functional outcome (WHOQOL-BREF score) were done. The affect of age, gender, fracture displacement, hip dislocation, delay in surgery and associated injury on the clinical and functional outcome was evaluated. Results: The mean HHS was 90.65 (42-100) which showed an overall good to excellent outcome in 78.8% cases. WHOQOL-BREF Hindi score of domain-one was 63.06 ± 20.31 (13-94), of domain-two was 58.22 ± 19.57 (13-100), of domain-three was 70.49 ± 17.92 (13-100) and of domain-four was 64.48 ± 18.46 (13-100), which showed significant functional deficit in domain-one (P = 0.0001) and domain-two (P = 0.0001) but not in domain-three (P = 0.458) and domain-four (P = 0.722) when compared to score of general healthy population. The domain scores of general population norms were achieved in 59.3%, 61.9%, 69.5% and 66.1% cases in domain one, two, three and four respectively. Conclusions: Based on these results one can conclude that WHOQOL-Hindi questionnaire is good enough for assessment of QOL in addition to clinical measures in acetabular fracture patients.
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Bipolar hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of femoral head in young adults p. 329
Baldev Dudani, Ashok K Shyam, Pankush Arora, Arjun Veigus
Background: Bipolar hip arthroplasty (BHA) is one of the options for treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Acetabular erosion and groin pain are the most allowing for gross motion between the common complications. We propose that these complications are secondary to improper acetabular preparation allowing for motion between the BHA head and the acetabulum. Materials and Methods: The current study retrospectively evaluated patients' records from case files and also called them for clinical and radiological followup. 96 hips with AVN of the femoral head treated with BHA were included in the study. All patients were males with a mean age of 42 years (range 30-59 years). In all cases, the acetabulum was gently reamed till it became uniformly concentric to achieve tight fitting trial cup. Clinical followup using Harris hip score (HHS) and radiological study for cup migration were done at followup. Results: The mean followup was 7.52 years (range 4-16 years). The HHS significantly improved from a preoperative value of 39.3 (range, 54-30) to a postoperative value of 89.12 (range 74-96). According to HHS grades, the final outcome was excellent in 52 hips, good in 28 and fair in 16 hips. Hip and groin pain was reported in four hips (5%), but did not limit activity. Subsidence (less than 5 mm) of the femoral component was seen in 8 cases. Subgroup analysis showed patients with Ficat Stage 3 having better range of motion, but similar HHS as compared to Ficat Stage 4 patients. Conclusion: Bipolar hip arthroplasty (BHA) using tight fitting cup and acetabular reaming in AVN hip has a low incidence of groin pain, acetabular erosion and revision in midterm followup. Good outcome and mid term survival can be achieved irrespective of the Ficat Stage.
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Ceramic on ceramic hip arthroplasty in fused hips p. 336
Kyung-Soon Park, Taek-Rim Yoon, Tae-Min Lee, Yeong-Seub Ahn
Background: Most literature in the field of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for fused hips, until date has reported the results of using metal on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene bearings. Results of THA using ceramic on ceramic (CoC) bearings in fused hips have not been published in literature. This study reports the results of cementless THA using CoC articulation perfomed in fused hips. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients (25 hips) with fused hips underwent conversion to THA using CoC bearings and were followed up for a mean 5.4 years. The conventional posterolateral approach was used in 15 hips, a modified two incision technique in 7 hips and a direct lateral approach with greater trochanteric osteotomy in 3 hips. Postoperatively, range of motion exercises were encouraged after 2-3 days of bed rest and subsequent gradual weight bearing using crutches was begun. Results: Mean Harris hip score improved from 42.4 to 84.2 and mean leg lengthening of 36.6 mm was achieved. In the average 5.4 years (range 2.8-9.1 years) followup there were no cases with osteolysis around acetabular cup and femoral stem. In this study, there was no case of ceramic fracture. There was one case of squeaking. Conclusion: This study suggests that cementless THA performed for fused hips with CoC bearings can provide good early clinical results.
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Treatment of neglected femoral neck fractures using the modified dynamic hip screw with autogenous bone and bone morphogenetic protein-2 composite materials grafting p. 342
Dasheng Lin, Shenjia Zuo, Lin Li, Lei Wang, Kejian Lian
Background: The neglected femoral neck fracture is one where there has been a delay of more than 30 days to seek medical help from the time of the original injury. Salvage procedures, such as osteotomy and other treatment options such as vascularized and nonvascularized bone grafts have high failure rates and arthroplasty procedures are not ideal, given the patient's young age and higher levels of activity. We designed a hollow bone graft dynamic hip screw (Hb-DHS) (modified DHS, Hb-DHS) for use in neglected femoral neck fractures. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of the modified dynamic hip screw (DHS) with autogenous bone and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) composite materials grafting for the treatment of the neglected femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in twenty patients of neglected femoral neck fractures treated with the modified DHS with autogenous bone and BMP-2 composite materials grafting between July 2007 and February 2010. There were 14 men and 6 women with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 19-42 years). The mean time from injury to surgery was 9.7 weeks (range 6-16 weeks). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, fracture healing time, Harris scoring for hip function and complications were recorded to evaluate treatment effects. Results: The mean operation time was 75.8 min (range 55-100 min) with mean intraoperative blood loss volume of 105 mL (range 70-220 mL). The mean time to union was 17 weeks (range 12-24 weeks). One patient did not achieve union, and two patients had avascular necrosis of the femoral head. This patient with nonunion underwent intertrochanteric osteotomy. In patients with avascular necrosis one required total hip arthroplasty, the other did not require intervention at the last followup. A total of 14 patients (70%) had excellent results, 2 (10%) had good, 1 (5%) had moderate and 3 (15%) had poor results. Conclusion: The modified DHS with autogenous bone and BMP-2 composite materials grafting for the treatment of neglected femoral neck fractures was effective and had less complications.
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A biomechanical comparison of proximal femoral nails and locking proximal anatomic femoral plates in femoral fracture fixation A study on synthetic bones p. 347
Korhan Ozkan, Ismail Türkmen, Adem Sahin, Yavuz Yildiz, Selim Erturk, Mehmet Salih Soylemez
Background: The incidence of fractures in the trochanteric area has risen with the increasing numbers of elderly people with osteoporosis. Although dynamic hip screw fixation is the gold standard for the treatment of stable intertrochanteric femur fractures, treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures still remains controversial. Intramedullary devices such as Gamma nail or proximal femoral nail and proximal anatomic femur plates are in use for the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures. There are still many investigations to find the optimal implant to treat these fractures with minimum complications. For this reason, we aimed to perform a biomechanical comparison of the proximal femoral nail and the locking proximal anatomic femoral plate in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty synthetic, third generation human femur models, obtained for this purpose, were divided into two groups of 10 bones each. Femurs were provided as a standard representation of AO/Orthopedic Trauma Associationtype 31-A2 unstable fractures. Two types of implantations were inserted: the proximal femoral intramedullary nail in the first group and the locking anatomic femoral plate in the second group. Axial load was applied to the fracture models through the femoral head using a material testing machine, and the biomechanical properties of the implant types were compared. Result: Nail and plate models were locked distally at the same level. Axial steady load with a 5 mm/m velocity was applied through the mechanical axis of femur bone models. Axial loading in the proximal femoral intramedullary nail group was 1.78-fold greater compared to the plate group. All bones that had the plate applied were fractured in the portion containing the distal locking screw. Conclusion: The proximal femoral intramedullary nail provides more stability and allows for earlier weight bearing than the locking plate when used for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. Clinicians should be cautious for early weight bearing with locking plate for unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures.
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Trans-tibial guide wire placement for femoral tunnel in single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction p. 352
Skand Sinha, AK Naik, CS Arya, RK Arya, Vijay K Jain, Gaurav Upadhyay
Background: Femoral tunnel location is of critical importance for successful outcome of ACL reconstruction. The aim was to study the femoral tunnel created by placing free hand guide wire through tibial tunnel, using the toggle of the guide wire in the tibial tunnel to improve femoral tunnel location. Materials and Methods: 30 cases of a single bundle quadrupled hamstring graft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by trans-tibial free hand femoral tunnel creation is studied in this prospective study. The side to side play of the guide wire in the tibial tunnel was used to improve the tunnel location on femoral wall. The coronal angle of the femoral tunnel was measured on the anteroposterior radiograph. The femoral tunnel location on the lateral radiograph of the knee was recorded according to Amis method. Lysholm scoring was done preoperative and at each follow up. Assessment of laxity was done by Rolimeter (Aircast ) and pivot shift test. Results: The mean coronal angle of the femoral tunnel in postoperative radiograph was 47΀. In lateral radiograph, the femoral tunnel was found to be >60% posterior on Blumensaat line in 67% cases (n = 20) and in the 33% cases (n = 10) it was anterior. The mean Lysholm score improved from 74.6 preoperative to 93.17 postoperative with no objective evidence of laxity. Conclusion: The free hand trans-tibial creation of the femoral tunnel leads to satisfactory coronal obliquity, but it is difficult to recreate anatomic femoral tunnel by this method as the tunnel is consistently anterior in the sagittal plane.
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The effects of dabigatran etexilate on fracture healing in rats An experimental study p. 357
Servet Kerimoglu, Atilgan Onay, Yilmaz Guvercin, Atilla Çitlak, Engin Yenilmez, Gökçen Kerimoglu
Background: Deep vein thrombosis leading to pulmonary embolism is one of the major complication after fracture. After a fracture occurs, the coagulation cascade activates thrombin, a protease that finally generates clotting. Dabigatran etexilate reduce clot formation by inhibiting thrombin. Dabigatran etexilate is a widely used drug for thromboprophylaxis. There is no study of the effects of dabigatran etexilate on fracture healing in the literature, so we aimed to evaluate the effects of dabigatran etexilate on fracture healing. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups, each consisting of 6 rats. In all rats, right tibias were used for the fracture model. An oral regimen of dabigatran etexilate suspension in 0.5% hydroxyethylcellulose was administered to the rats. Although the first and second groups received 10 mg/kg daily doses, the third and fourth groups received 50 mg/kg daily doses. The fifth and sixth groups were assigned as sham groups and only hydroxyethylcellulose solution was administered. The first, third and fifth groups were sacrificed on 14 th days; whereas the second, fourth and sixth groups were sacrificed on 28 th days. Results were evaluated radiologically and histologically. Results: Radiologically and histologically no statistically significant differences were observed on the 14 th day between the first, third and fifth groups; and on the 28 th days between the second, fourth and sixth groups. Conclusion: Radiological and histological evaluations revealed that fracture healing was not affected by dabigatran etexilate. We think that dabigatran etexilate can be used for the prophylaxis of thromboembolism in patients with fractures, but further clinical studies are mandatory.
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Genetic disorders with heterotopic ossificans p. 361
Ruthiramurthy Sankar, Kalpana Gowrishankar, Saraswati Viswanathan
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and progressive ossific heteroplasia (POH) are rare genetic disorders characterized by heterotopic bone formation leading to progressive loss of mobility and function. We report three cases of these rare disorders (two cases of FOP and one case of POH), which were clinically diagnosed and underwent genetic analysis. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical features and the differences between these two conditions. We would also like to emphasize on the morbidity that can arise from unnecessary invasive investigations for diagnostic purposes.
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Ewing's sarcoma of proximal phalanx of the hand with skip metastases to metacarpals p. 365
Anshu Shekhar, Suresh Korlhalli, Gururaj Murgod
Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common malignant primary bone tumor of childhood and adolescence affecting mainly the diaphysis of long bones and flat bones. This tumor is extraordinarily rare in small bones of the hand and presents as a swelling with atypical radiological features of cystic and lytic lesion with scant periosteal reaction. The common differential diagnosis include osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, enchondroma and benign tumors. Moreover, skip metastasis to adjacent bones is even rarer. The prognosis of this condition is greatly influenced by the presence of metastasis at presentation, further emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Multimodality treatment using surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is currently recommended though no consensus exists. We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the little finger proximal phalanx which was initially missed and developed skip metastasis to several metacarpals within 4 months.
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Irreducible, incarcerated vertical dislocation of the patella into a Hoffa fracture p. 369
Amit Chauhan
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Author's reply p. 369
Prasad Soraganvi, BS Narayan Gowda, R Ramakanth, Ashok S Gavaskar
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Current progress in orthopedics p. 371
Nirmal C Mohapatra
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