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   Table of Contents - Current issue
March-April 2017
Volume 51 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 121-235

Online since Wednesday, March 8, 2017

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Balancing research and clinical practice p. 121
Ravi Gupta
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Congenital muscular torticollis: Use of gaze angle and translational deformity in assessment of facial asymmetry p. 123
Atul Bhaskar, U Harish, Hardik Desai
Background: Assessment of facial asymmetry is challenging in torticollis deformity. Neck tilt in toroticollis is associated with deviation of horizontal ocular gaze and translation of neck from the midline. These deviations can be assessed clinically and can be used as surrogate marker for facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty five children with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) were classified into three grades of severity based on the new clinical score. The parameters included in the scoring system included rotational deficit, side flexion deficit, gaze angle (GA), and translational deformity (TD). Seven children had Grade I (mild), 18 had Grade II (moderate), and 10 had Grade III (severe) CMT. There were 21 girls and 14 boys with a mean age of 8.46 years (range 3–16 years). Twenty two children underwent a bipolar release, and 13 had unipolar surgery. Facial asymmetry (FA) signs were noted and based on GA and TD; all children had a deviation from the neutral angles (GA of 90° and 0 mm translation from the midsterna plumb line were considered neutral angle). The final outcome was based on the modified Cheng and Tang Score. Results: The mean GA in Grade I, II, and III improved from 81.71 to 90, 72.77 to 89.16, and 66.60 to 88, respectively (Chi-square P < 0.0001). The TD improved from 15 mm to 0 mm, 25.83 mm to 3.05 mm, and 36.6 mm to 6 mm in Grade I, II, and III, respectively (Chi-square P < 0.05). The rotational and side flexion deficits also improved across all grades of severity but were not statistically significant (P < 0.911 and P < 0.04). Twenty four children had an excellent outcome with complete correction of their GA and TD. Four children with Grade II CMT and seven children with Grade III who had a residual translation of 5 mm or more and GA less than neutral horizontal had a good outcome. No child had problems with scar cosmesis or prominent lateral bands, and there was no recurrence of deformity at a mean followup of 28 months (range 24–32 months). Conclusion: The GA and TD can be used to assess FA in torticollis management and significant improvement can be expected even in severe cases.
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Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion versus instrumented posterolateral fusion in Grade I/II spondylolisthesis p. 131
Shanmugasundaram Pooswamy, Niranjanan Raghavn Muralidharagopalan, Sivasubramaniam Subbaiah
Background: Spondylolisthesis refers to slippage of one vertebra over the other, which may be caused by a variety of reasons such as degenerative, trauma, and isthmic. Surgical management forms the mainstay of treatment to prevent further slip and worsening. However, there is no consensus regarding the best surgical option to treat these patients. This study compares TLIF and instrumented PLF in patients with Grade I and II spondylolisthesis and analysis the outcome with respect to functional outcome, pain, fusion rate, adequacy of medial facetectomy for decompression, and complications. Materials and Methods: Forty patients operated for spondylolisthesis by instrumented posterolateral or transforaminal fusion between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2012 were included in this retrospective study. They were followed up for 3 years. Twenty one cases were of instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) and 19 cases were of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The patients were asked to fill up the Oswestry disability index (ODI), Dallas Pain Questionnaire (DPQ), and low back pain rating scale (LBPRS) preoperatively, at 1-month postoperatively, and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postoperatively. Radiological parameters were assessed using radiographs. Results: No significant differences were found in DPQ, LBPRS, or ODI scores preoperative, 1-month postoperative, and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months followup. No significant difference was found between the two groups in blood loss. The only significant difference between the two groups was in the operative time, in which the instrumented PLF group had a mean of 50 min lesser than the TLIF group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: TLIF and instrumented PLF are equally efficacious options in the treatment of Grade I and II spondylolisthesis, except lytic type.
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Complication rate during multilevel lumbar fusion in patients above 60 years p. 139
Bijjawara Mahesh, Bidre Upendra, S Vijay, GC Arun Kumar, Srinivas Reddy
Background: Spine surgery in elderly with comorbidities is reported to have higher complication rates and increased cost. However, the surgical outcome is good irrespective of the complications. Hence, it is essential to identify the factors affecting the complication rates in such patients and the measures to reduce them. This retrospective observational study determines the perioperative complications, their incidence and the measures to reduce complications in the elderly with comorbidities, operated by instrumented multilevel lumbar fusion. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 60 years and above with one or more comorbidities operated by multilevel instrumented lumbar fusion in our center between January 2012 and December 2013 were included in the study. Perioperative complications and their incidence were calculated. Age, number of levels fused, operative time, blood loss, and complication rates were correlated with the duration of stay and the incidence of perioperative complications using SPSS software. Measures to reduce complications are determined by these results and by review of literature. Results: Fifty two patients were included in the study (28 females and 24 males) with an average age of 69 years (range 60-84 years). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity followed by diabetes. Spondylolisthesis was the most common indication. Eleven complications were noted with an incidence of 21%. Three were systemic complications which required transfer to Intensive Care Unit. Local complications were incidental durotomy (three), transient root deficits (two), wound infections (one), and persistent radicular pain (two). Operative time and blood loss were significantly higher in patients with complications. Conclusion: Complication rates strongly correlate with the blood loss and operative time. Reducing the operative time and blood loss by intraoperative tranexamic acid, laminectomy using osteotome, simultaneous bilateral exposure and instrumentation and reducing the number of interbody fusions can help in reducing the complications.
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Does lumbar paraspinal muscles improve after corrective fusion surgery in degenerative flat black? p. 147
Jung Hwan Lee, Sang-Ho Lee
Background: Degenerative flat back (DFB) is characterized by sagittal imbalance resulting from the loss of lumbar lordosis (LL). Extensive degeneration and weakness of lumbar paraspinal extensor muscle (PSE) are thought to be the main cause of DFB. This study is to evaluate correlation between preoperative PSE conditions and angular severity of DFB and to evaluate correlation between preoperative PSE conditions and degree of improvement of DFB obtained by corrective surgery. Materials and Methods: Forty five patients with DFB who took magnetic resonance image (MRI) preoperatively and conducted simple radiography and three-dimensional gait analysis before and 6 months after corrective surgery were included. To determine the severity of PSE atrophy, the ratio between cross-sectional area of PSE and disc was calculated from L1–L2 to L4–L5 on MRI. To assess the degree of fat infiltration, the signal intensity of PSE was measured. Static parameters of spinopelvic segment were measured by simple radiography. Dynamic parameters of spinopelvic and lower limb joints were obtained by three-dimensional gait analysis. Results: In static parameters, thoracic angle was correlated with atrophy and fat infiltration of upper PSE. Thoracic angle was less improved after surgery, as atrophy of upper PSE was more severe. In dynamic parameters, thoracic angle showed correlation with upper PSE conditions, whereas lumbar angle had correlation with middle to lower PSE conditions. While thoracic kyphosis was less improved after surgery, as atrophy of upper PSE was more severe, LL was less improved, as atrophy and fat infiltration of PSE from L1–L2 to L4–L5 were more severe. Conclusions: Severity of atrophy or fat infiltration of PSE showed correlation with degree of angular deformity in patients with DFB and with less improvement after corrective surgery. Dynamic parameters showed more prominent correlation with PSE conditions than static parameters and also showed segmental specificity between PSE and angular deformity.
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Anthropometric analysis of the hip joint in South Indian population using computed tomography p. 155
Vetrivel Chezian Sengodan, Elangovan Sinmayanantham, J Saravana Kumar
Background: Proximal femur has a significant functional modification on erect bipedal posture. Various proximal femoral parameters were analyzed in Western literature. This information was utilized in prosthetic designing. Implants designed for Western people are used in Indian patients undergoing hip surgeries such as internal fixation and replacement arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: The study was done among 200 individuals (400 hips) with a normal hip joint after ethical committee clearance. Computed tomography scanning of proximal femur was done. Neck-shaft angle (NSA), neck width (NW), head diameter (HD), acetabular angle (AA) of sharp, horizontal offset (HO), vertical offset (VO), medullary canal diameter at the level of lesser trochanter (MDLT), and acetabular version (AV) were measured. These parameters were tabulated and compared with various populations and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean values were NSA 135°, NW 27 mm, femoral HD (HD) 42.5 mm, AA of sharp 35.5°, HO 37 mm, VO 46 mm, MDLT20 mm, and AV 18.64°. The values differ when compared with Western population. This study results differed when compared with other Indian studies done in Northern and Northeast Indian population. Significant differences noted in the parameters between sexes and between the sides of the hip joint. Conclusion: This study indicates that there are significant differences in anthropometric parameters of proximal femur among the South Indian population compared with Western population. Even within the Indian population, the anthropometric parameters vary region to region.
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Intraoperative measurement of limb lengthening during total hip arthroplasty p. 162
Dimitrios Vasileiou Papadopoulos, Panagiotis Koulouvaris, Georgios Charalambos Aggelidakis, Andreas Georgios Tsantes, Marios Georgios Lykissas, Alexandros Mavrodontidis
Background: Limb length discrepancy (LLD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common problem which cannot be completely resolved. Many techniques have been described in order to minimize postoperative LLD, but most of these techniques are difficult to apply. Ideal technique must be simple and accurate. The most simple technique using a suture tied on the skin has well-known limitations, but its accuracy has not been evaluated before. Materials and Methods: Sixty THAs in sixty patients (mean age 71 years, 1:1 male to female ratio) with hip osteoarthritis (37 cases in the right, and 23 cases in the left side) were studied in this prospective study. In all surgeries, the intraoperataive measurement of limb lengthening was performed using a suture tied on the skin of the lateral pelvis. The accuracy of this technique and correlation between intraoperative and postoperative radiological measurements of lengthening were evaluated. Results: The mean preoperative LLD was –7.5 mm while the mean postoperative LLD was 1.58 mm. The accuracy of this technique, defined as the mean difference between the intraoperative and postoperative measurements was 1.8 mm. A strong correlation between these two measurements was noticed (r = 0.86). Conclusion: The accuracy and correlation index of this simple technique were similar to those of other techniques. The studied technique is quite accurate when attention is given to certain details, such as the amount of tension applied on the suture, the position of the tied point on the skin, and the position of the leg during measurements.
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Early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction can save meniscus without any complications p. 168
Chang-Ik Hur, Eun-Kyoo Song, Sung-Kyu Kim, Seung-Hun Lee, Jong-Keun Seon
Background: Early ACL reconstruction, before retuning to activity eliminates recurrent episodes of instability and thereby decreases chances of meniscal and cartilage injury. However, there are no clear and uniform guidelines regarding the timing of ACL reconstruction or clarity in the definition of early and delayed reconstruction to reduce the complications after reconstruction in the ACL injured knee. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome, stability, muscle power, and postural control after early and delayed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Patients who had ACL reconstruction with a quadruple hamstring tendon with a minimum 2-year followup were evaluated. Early (within 3 weeks) reconstruction group was 48 knees and delayed (more than 3 months) group was 43 knees. We compared the two groups with regard to Lysholm knee score, range of motion (ROM), Lachman test, Tegner activity scale, associated meniscal or chondral injuries, and anterior laxity. We also compared muscle strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and postural control with computed dynamic posturography at the final followup. Results: While 50% of early and 70% of delayed group had meniscal injuries (P = 0.06), of which were reparable in 42% of early group and 17% of delayed group (P = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference in cartilage injury (P = 0.14). At the final followup, no significant differences were found between two groups for Lysholm score (P = 0.28), Tegner activity scale (P = 0.27), and ROM. The stabilities regarding Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and anterior laxity also showed no significant differences between two groups. The mean extension and flexion muscles power, and postural control showed no significant inter-group differences (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Early ACL reconstruction had excellent clinical results and stability as good as delayed reconstruction without the problem of knee motion, muscle power, and postural control. Moreover, early reconstruction showed the high possibility of meniscal repair. Therefore, early ACL reconstruction should be recommended.
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Tunnel widening prevention with the allo-Achilles tendon graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Surgical tips and short term followup p. 174
Dong Won Suh, Seung Beom Han, Woo Jin Yeo, Won Hee Lee, Jae Ho Kwon, Bong Soo Kyung
Background: Tunnel widening (TW) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be a serious complication, and there is controversy over how to prevent it. This study aimed to suggest surgical approaches to prevent TW using an allo-Achilles tendon graft, and then to evaluate TW after these surgical tips were applied. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients underwent ACL reconstruction with an allo-Achilles tendon graft. Four surgical approaches were used: Making a tibial tunnel by bone impaction, intraarticular reamer application, bone portion application for the femoral tunnel, and an additional bone plug application for the tibial tunnel. After more than 1-year, followup radiographs including anteroposterior and lateral views were taken in 29 patients encompassing thirty knees. The diameter of the tunnels at postoperation day 1 (POD1) and at followup was measured and compared. Results: In 18 knees (60%), there were no visible femoral tunnel margins on the radiographs at POD1 or followup. In the other 12 cases, which had visible femoral tunnel margins on followup radiographs, the mean femoral tunnel diameter was 8.6 mm. In the tibial tunnel, the mean diameters did not increase on all three levels (proximal, middle, and distal), and there was no statistically significant difference between the diameters at POD1 and followup. Conclusion: The suggested tips for surgery involving an allo-Achilles tendon graft can effectively prevent TW after ACL reconstruction according to this case series. These surgical tips can prevent TW.
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Enhanced recovery protocol and hidden blood loss in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty p. 182
Rohit Dhawan, Harshadkumar Rajgor, Rathan Yarlagadda, John John, Niall M Graham
Background: Perioperative blood loss and postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty prevent early mobilisation of patients. The Enhanced Recovery Protocol (ERP) followed for patients in our institute aims at reducing post operative pain, blood loss and length of stay. Materials and Methods: 50 consecutive patients that underwent ERP following total knee arthroplasty with another group of 70 patients that underwent the same surgery without ERP were compared in terms of hidden blood loss and length of hospital stay. Hidden blood loss was calculated according to previously described method. Results: Reduction in blood loss was found in both males (305 ml) and females (150 ml) following ERP. Length of stay reduced by 1.5 days in both genders. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between body weight and blood loss in females. Conclusion: Enhanced recovery protocol could be a useful tool to reduce patient morbidity and reduce length of inpatient stay.
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Arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial eminence fractures using a suspensory fixation p. 187
Philippe Loriaut, Pierre-Emmanuel Moreau, Patrick Loriaut, Patrick Boyer
Background: Avulsion fractures of the tibial intercondylar eminence are fairly common injuries requiring surgery for the optimal functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of an arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory device. Material and Methods: Five patients with type 2 and 3 displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures who received an arthroscopically assisted fixation using a double button device were enrolled from 2011 to 2012. Clinical assessment included the patient demographics, cause of injury, the delay before surgery, time for surgery, time to return to work and sport, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Lysholm knee scores. Stability was measured with the KT-2000 arthrometer with a force of 134 N. A side to side difference on the KT-2000 examination superior to 3 mm was considered as a significant and abnormal increase in the anterior translation. Radiological examination consisted of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, as well as computed tomography (CT) scan of the affected knee. Clinical and radiological followup was done at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and at final followup. CT-scan was performed before surgery and at 3 months followup. Results: The median age of patients was 31 years. Mean followup was 27 ± 5.1 months. The average delay before surgery was 3 days. At final followup, the mean IKDC and Lysholm knee scores were, 93.9 and 94.5 respectively. All patients had a complete functional recovery and were able to return to work and to resume their sport activities. No secondary surgeries were required to remove hardware. No complication was noted. Bony union was achieved in all patients. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment of displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures using a suspensory system provided a satisfactory clinical and radiological outcome at a followup of 2 years.
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Limited incision carpal tunnel release p. 192
Sunil Gaba, Sandeep Bhogesha, Onkar Singh
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Limited incision techniques for carpal tunnel release are gaining popularity. The main advantages of these techniques are less scar load, less pillar pain, shorter recovery, and return-to-work time. However, the completeness of release, and risk of neurovascular injury are always a concern. We devised a method of limited incision release with two mini-incisions and use of nasal speculum and a probe. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and neurological outcome of this technique. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven cases (9 male and 18 female, age 28–56 years) of isolated CTS cases were enrolled in the study. A total of 33 hands (six bilateral) underwent limited incision carpal tunnel release. In this study, two mini-incisions were used and release was done with the help of nasal speculum. Evaluation preoperatively and in 6 months and at 1-year postoperatively was done, namely, (a) clinical status examination, (b) motor testing using grip and pinch dynamometer, and (c) neurological outcome measure using nerve conduction study. Results: All the patients had good clinical and neurological outcome with no recurrence during followup. The first symptom to get relieved was night pains, with a mean of 4.5 days (range 2–14 days). Compared to pain, improvement of sensory symptoms was delayed; the mean duration was 42.8 days (range 30–90 days). Scar tenderness was present only for a mean duration of 9 days (range 7–21 days). The mean duration for patients to resume their daily activities was12 days (range 7–28 days) and to work was 32 days (range 21–90 days). The hand grip showed mean values of 45.12 ± 16.16 g/mm2 preoperatively, 62.45 ± 18.86 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 74.87 ± 20.35 g/mm2 at 1-year postoperatively. The key pinch showed mean values of 11.27 ± 3.51 g/mm2 preoperatively, 20.181 ± 3.94 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 27.96 ± 94.42 g/mm2 at 1-year postoperatively. The tip pinch showed mean values of 8.88 ± 2.39 g/mm2 preoperatively, 15.393 ± 3.25 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 19.27 ± 4.81 g/mm2 at 1-year postoperatively. The palmar pinch showed mean values of 14.42 ± 2.92 g/mm2 preoperatively, 19.303 ± 3.62 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 22.97 ± 4.08 g/mm2 at 1-year postoperatively. Conclusion: Limited incision carpal tunnel release can be considered a feasible alternative to traditional open release and endoscopic release.
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Epidemiology of lower limb musculoskeletal trauma with associated vascular injuries in a tertiary care institute in India p. 199
Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Siva Swaminathan Santhanam, Balaji Saibaba, Mandeep Singh Dhillon
Background: Vascular trauma associated with bony injuries is an orthopaedic emergency. Lack of timely intervention can lead to loss of limb or even life. Inspite of the rising incidence of high speed road traffic accidents in India, there is paucity of literature regarding the demographic pattern, clinical morbidity, management strategies and outcome of arterial injuries associated with lower limb trauma. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma with associated vascular injuries in a tertiary care institute in India. Materials and Methods: All individuals who presented to our tertiary care trauma center from July 2013 to December 2014 with lower extremity vascular injury associated with lower limb fractures were identified from a retrospective trauma database for this descriptive study. For the 17 months, there were 82 lower extremity vascular trauma cases admitted in our trauma center, of which 50 cases were included in the study. 32 patients with crush injuries, traumatic amputations, and those with head injury and blunt trauma to chest or abdomen were excluded from the study. Results: Out of the 50 cases of lower extremity vascular injury with associated lower limb fractures, 19 limbs were salvaged, 28 amputated, and three patients expired. Young males in the age group of 20–39 years were frequently injured. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) (82%) was found to be the most common cause followed by pedestrian injury. Popliteal artery (62%) was the most common vessel injured, followed by femoral artery (28%). The salvageability percentage was much higher (64%) in the femoral artery injury group when compared to popliteal artery injury group (25%). There were 32 open fractures, with amputation rates (60%) being higher and all three cases of death falling in this group. In addition, the limb salvageability percentage was 43.2% when the patient presented within 12 h of injury and this decreased to a mere 16.7% when the patient had presented more than 24 h after injury. Conclusion: MVAs are the leading cause of vascular injuries in India. Road safety measures and prevention programs are the need of the hour to prevent these kinds of injuries in the future.
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Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts p. 205
Manit K Gundavda, Hitendra G Patil, Vikas M Agashe, Rajeev Soman, Camilla Rodriques, Ramesh B Deshpande
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens. Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. However, there has been an increasing incidence in recent years of infections in immunocompetent hosts. NTM infections in immunocompetent individuals are secondary to direct inoculation either contamination from surgical procedures or penetrating injuries rather than hematogenous dissemination. Clinically and on histopathology, musculoskeletal infections caused by NTM resemble those caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but are mostly resistant to routine antituberculosis medicines. Materials and Methods: Six cases of NTM infection in immunocompetent hosts presenting to the department from 2004 to 2015 were included in study. Of which two cases (one patella and one humerus) of infection were following an open wound due to trauma while two cases (one hip and one shoulder) of infection were by inoculation following an intraarticular injection for arthrogram of the joint, one case was infection following arthroscopy of knee joint and one case (calcaneum) was infection following local injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. All patients underwent inaging and tissue diagnosis with samples being sent for culture, staining, and histopathology. Results: Clinical suspicion of NTM inoculation led to the correct diagnosis (four cases with culture positive and two cases with histopathological diagnosis). There treatment protocol for extrapulmonary NTM infection was radical surgical debridement and medical management based on drug sensitivity testing in culture positive cases. At a mean follow up of 3 years (range1–9 years) all patients had total remission and excellent results. Conclusions: Whenever a case of chronic granulomatous infection is encountered that does not respond to standard anti-tuberculous treatment, with a history of open trauma, surgical intervention, or injection as shown in this study, a possible NTM infection should be considered and managed appropriately.
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Minimally invasive surgical technique for tethered surgical drains p. 213
Shane R Hess, Jibanananda Satpathy, Andrew C Waligora, Obinna Ugwu-Oju
A feared complication of temporary surgical drain placement is from the technical error of accidentally suturing the surgical drain into the wound. Postoperative discovery of a tethered drain can frequently necessitate return to the operating room if it cannot be successfully removed with nonoperative techniques. Formal wound exploration increases anesthesia and infection risk as well as cost and is best avoided if possible. We present a minimally invasive surgical technique that can avoid the morbidity associated with a full surgical wound exploration to remove a tethered drain when other nonoperative techniques fail.
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Gorham's disease in humerus treated with autogenous vascularized fibular graft p. 217
Jeung Woo Kim, Hong Je Kang, Dong Chul Kim, Chang Hyun Shin
Gorham's disease is a rare disorder of the bone characterized by progressive massive osteolysis. The pathophysiology is unknown, and diagnosis is often difficult. Most cases are often recognized retrospectively. There is no standardized treatment and management for Gorham's disease. We report a case of an 18-year-old male presenting with a pathologic fracture in the humerus shaft diagnosed with Gorham's disease. Patient was treated with autogenous vascularized fibular graft with wide excision and a 10 years followup after first surgery.
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Distraction osteogenesis using combined locking plate and Ilizarov fixator in the treatment of bone defect: A report of 2 cases p. 222
John Mukhopadhaya, Manish Raj
Distraction osteogenesis and bone transport has been used to reconstruct bone loss defect by allowing new bone to form in the gap. Plate-guided bone transport has been successfully described in literature to treat bone loss defect in the femur, tibia, and mandible. This study reports two cases of fracture of femur with segmental bone loss treated with locking plate fixation and bone transport with Ilizarov ring fixator. At the time of docking, when the transport segment is compressed with bone fragment, the bone fragment is fixed with additional locking or nonlocking screws through the plate. The bone defect size was 7 cm in case 1 and 8 cm in case 2 and the external fixation indexes were 12.7 days/cm and 14 days/cm. No shortening was present in either of our cases. The average radiographic consolidation index was 37 days/cm. Both cases achieved infection-free bone segment regeneration and satisfactorily functional outcome. This technique reduces the duration of external fixation during the consolidation phase, allows correction of length and alignment and provides earlier rehabilitation.
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Arthroscopic management of popliteal cyst: Comments and concerns p. 229
Raju Vaishya, Midhun Krishnan, Vipul Vijay, Amit K Agarwal
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Author's reply p. 229
Amite Pankaj, Deepak Chahar, Devendra Pathrot
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Babhulkar's short textbook of orthopedics and traumatology p. 231
Rakesh Bhargava
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Legends of Indian Orthopedics Dr. Karam Singh Grewal p. 232
Bhavuk Garg, SM Tuli
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Erratum: Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures by primary fascio-septo-cutaneous local flap and primary fixation: The 'fix and shift' technique p. 234

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Erratum: Core decompression or quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting for nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A randomized control study p. 235

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