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March-April 2015
Volume 49 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 127-264

Online since Tuesday, March 03, 2015

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EDITORIAL  

Graft choices for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Highly accessed article p. 127
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan-Ul-Haq , Sudhir Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152393  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Partial tears of anterior cruciate ligament: Results of single bundle augmentation p. 129
Dhananjaya Sabat, Vinod Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152394  
Background: Partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common and usually present with symptomatic instability. The remnant fibers are usually removed and a traditional ACL reconstruction is done. But with increased understanding of ACL double bundle anatomy, the remnant tissue preservation along with a single bundle augmentation of the torn bundle is also suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of selective anatomic augmentation of symptomatic partial ACL tears. Our hypothesis is that this selective augmentation of partial ACL tears could restore knee stability and function. Materials and Methods: Consecutive cases of 314 ACL reconstructions, 40 patients had intact ACL fibers in the location corresponding to the anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle and were diagnosed as partial ACL tears perioperatively. All patients underwent selective augmentation of the torn bundle, while keeping the remaining fibers intact using autogenous hamstring graft. A total of 38 patients (28 males, 10 females) were available with a minimum of 3 years followup. 26 cases had AM bundle tears and 12 cases had PL bundle tears respectively. Patients were assessed with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm score; instrumented knee testing was performed with the arthrometer (KT 2000). Statistical analysis was performed to compare the preoperative and postoperative objective evaluation. Results: At 3 years followup, 31.6% patients were graded A, 65.8% were graded B and 2.6% was graded C at IKDC objective evaluation. Manual laxity tests, Lysholm's score, mean side to side instrumental laxity and Tegner activity score improved significantly. 76% patients returned to preinjury level of sports activity after augmentation. Conclusion: The results of anatomic single bundle augmentation in partial ACL tears are encouraging with excellent improvement in functional scores, side to side laxity and return to sports activity.
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Arthroscopic anatomical double bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A prospective longitudinal study p. 136
Ashish Devgan, Amanpreet Singh, Paritosh Gogna, Rohit Singla, Narender Kumar Magu, Reetadyuti Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152406  
Background: Single bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been the current standard of treatment for ACL deficiency. However, a significant subset of patients continue to report residual symptoms of instability with a poor pivot control. Cadaveric biomechanical studies have shown double bundle (DB) ACL reconstructions to restore the knee kinematics better. This study evaluates the outcome of DB ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: 30 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic DB ACL reconstruction were included in this prospective longitudinal study. There were all males with a mean age of 25 ± 7.45 years. All patients were prospectively evaluated using GeNouRoB (GNRB) arthrometer, functional knee scores (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC] and Lysholm) and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for comparing the graft orientation and footprint of the reconstructed ACL with that of the normal knee. Results: The average followup was 36.2 months. At the time of final followup the mean Lysholm score was 93.13 ± 3.31. As per the objective IKDC score, 26 patients (86.6%) were in Group A while 4 patients (13.3%) were in Group B. The mean differential anterior tibial translation by GNRB, arthrometer was 1.07 ± 0.8 mm (range 0.1-2.3 mm). All cases had a negative pivot shift test. MRI scans of operated and the contralateral normal knee showed the mean sagittal ACL tibial angle coronal ACL tibial angle and tibial ACL footprint to be in accordance with the values of the contralateral, normal knee. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that DB ACL reconstruction restores the ACL anatomically in terms of size and angle of orientation. However, long term studies are needed to further substantiate its role in decreasing the incidence of early osteoarthritic changes compared to the conventional single bundle reconstructions.
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Ultrasonographic test for complete anterior cruciate ligament injury p. 143
Piotr Grzelak, Michał Tomasz Podgórski, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Marcin Domlalski
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152432  
Background: Although ultrasound (US) has a wide range of applications in orthopedic diagnostics, sonographic evaluation of traumatic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency is still inadequate. There is a growing need for diagnostic tests that allow for simple and reliable assessment of ACL instability. This investigation aims to evaluate feasibility of sonographic technique for diagnosing complete ACL insufficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty three consecutive patients suspected of ACL injury were examined with sonographic, dynamic test of anterior instability. The translation of the intercondylar eminence against the patellar tendon was measured in the injured and opposite (injured) knee. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients. Forty-seven of them underwent a further arthroscopy. Five patients have been examined for the 2 nd time to evaluate interclass and intraclass agreement and bias. Results: Complete ACL insufficiency has been confirmed in 37 patients. In those individuals, the total anterior knee translation and the difference between two joints (side-to-side difference) were significantly increased (8.67 mm standard deviation [SD] 2.65 mm in the affected knee versus 2.88 mm SD 1.26 mm in uninjured joint; P < 0.001). Based on a threshold of 2.0 mm for the side-to-side difference and 5.0 mm for the absolute translation, the sonographic test was found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 91.9% and 95.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The present technique supports the clinician with additional fast and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can facilitate the evaluation of anterior knee instability.
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Outcome of transtibial AperFix system in anterior cruciate ligament injuries p. 150
Gökay Görmeli, C Ayșe Görmeli, Mustafa Karakaplan, M Fatih Korkmaz, Uğur Diliçıkık, Harika Gözükara
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152436  
Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major stabilizing factor of the knee that resist anterior translation, valgus and varus forces. ACL is the most commonly ruptured ligament of the knee. The graft fixation to bone is considered to be the weakest link of the reconstruction. According to the parallel forces to the tibial drill hole and the quality of tibial metaphyseal bone is inferior to femoral bone stock, graft fixation to the tibia is more difficult to secure. AperFix system (Cayenne Medical, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona, USA) which consists femoral and tibial component that includes bioinert polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is one of the new choice for ACL reconstruction surgery.aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes and fixation durability of the AperFix (Cayenne Madical, Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona, USA) system and to determine the effect of patient's age in arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Materials and Methods: Patients with symptomatic anterior cruciate ligament rupture underwent arthroscopic reconstruction. Patients were evaluated in terms of range of motion (ROM) values; Lysholm, Cincinati and Tegner activity scales; laxity testing and complications. Femoral tunnel widening was assessed by computer tomography scans. Early postoperative and last followup radiographs were compared. Results: Fifty one patients were evaluated with mean followup of 29 months (range 25-34 months). Mean age at the surgery was 26.5 ± 7.2 years. Lysholm, Cincinati and Tegner activity scales were significantly higher from preoperative scores (Lysholm scores: Preoperative: 51.4 ± 17.2, postoperative: 88.6 ± 7.7 [P < 0.001]; Tegner activity scores: Preoperative 3.3 ± 1.38, postoperative: 5.3 ± 1.6 [P < 0.001]; Cincinati scores: Preoperative: 44.3 ± 17, postoperative: 81.3 ± 13.9 [P < 0.001]). The mean femoral tunnel diameter increased significantly from 9.94 ± 0.79 mm postoperatively to 10.79 ± 0.95 mm (P < 0.05). The mean ROM deficit (involved vs. contra knee) was −7.2 ± 16 (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference for knee score, ROM deficits (<30 years: −7.3 ± 15 and >30 years −7.06 ± 19) and femoral tunnel enlargement (<30 years: 0.83 ± 0.52 and >30 years 0.87 ± 0.43) of the patients with below and above 30 year. There was no significant difference for knee scores and femoral tunnel enlargement between patients with meniscal injuries and don't have meniscus lesions. Conclusion: The AperFix system gives satisfactory clinical and radiological results with low complication rate. However, long term clinical and radiological results are needed to decide the ideal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction method.
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Outcome of combined autologous chondrocyte implantation and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction p. 155
Baljinder S Dhinsa, Syed Z Nawaz, Kieran R Gallagher, John Skinner, Tim Briggs, George Bentley
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152442  
Background: Instability of the knee joint, after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, is contraindication to osteochondral defect repair. This prospective study is to investigate the role of combined autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Three independent groups of patients with previous ACL injuries undergoing ACI were identified and prospectively followed up. The first group had ACI in combination with ACL reconstruction (combined group); the 2 nd group consisted of individuals who had an ACI procedure having had a previously successful ACL reconstruction (ACL first group); and the third group included patients who had an ACI procedure to a clinically stable knee with documented nonreconstructed ACL disruption (No ACL group). Their outcomes were assessed using the modified cincinnati rating system, the Bentley functional (BF) rating system (BF) and a visual analog scale (VAS). Results: At a mean followup of 64.24 months for the ACL first group, 63 months for combined group and 78.33 months for the No ACL group; 60% of ACL first patients, 72.73% of combined group and 83.33% of the No ACL group felt their outcome was better following surgery. There was no significant difference demonstrated in BF and VAS between the combined and ACL first groups. Results revealed a significant affect of osteochondral defect size on outcome measures. Conclusion: The study confirms that ACI in combination with ACL reconstruction is a viable option with similar outcomes as those patients who have had the procedures staged.
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Magnetic resonance appearance of bioabsorbable anchor screws for double row arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs p. 164
Aditya C Pawaskar, Aashay Kekatpure, Nam-Su Cho, Yong-Girl Rhee, In-Ho Jeon
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152452  
Background: Little is known about the bioabsorbable, anchor related postoperative changes in rotator cuff surgery, which has become more popular recently. The purpose of the present study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the degradation of bioabsorbable anchors and to determine the incidences and characteristics of early postoperative reactions around the anchors and their mechanical failures. Materials and Methods: Postoperative MRIs of 200 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were retrospectively analyzed. The tissue reactions around the bioanchors included fluid accumulations around the anchor, granulation tissue formation and changes in the condition of the surrounding osseous structure. The condition of the bioanchor itself was also examined, including whether the bioanchor failed mechanically. In the case of mechanical failure, the location of the failure was noted. Serial MRIs of 18 patients were available for analysis. Results: The total number of medial row bioanchors was 124, while that of the lateral row was 338. A low signal intensity rim suggestive of sclerosis surrounded all lateral row bioanchors. Ninety three lateral row bioanchors (27%) showed a rim with signal intensity similar to or less than that of surrounding bone, which was granulation tissue or foreign body reaction (FBR). Similar signal intensity was seen around nine medial row bioanchors (7%). Fluid accumulation was seen around 4 lateral row bioanchors (1%) and around 14 medial row bioanchors (11%). Five lateral row bioanchors showed the breakage, while there was none in the medial row bioanchors. There were nine cases with a cuff re-tear (4.5%). There was no evidence of affection of glenohumeral articular surfaces or of osteolysis around any bioanchor. In serial MRI, there was no change in appearance of the bioanchors, but the granulation tissue or FBR around four bioanchors and the fluid around one bioanchor showed a decrease in successive MRI. Conclusion: This study highlights the normal and adverse reactions to Bioabsorbable anchors that surgeons can expect to see on MRI after rotator cuff repairs.
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Displaced avulsion fractures of the posterior cruciate ligament: Treated by stellate steel plate fixation p. 171
Lijun Li, Wei Tian
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152454  
Background: The open reduction with internal fixation is an effective approach for treatment of avulsion fracture of posterior cruciate ligament. The previously used internal fixation materials including hollow screws, absorbable screw, tension bands and sutures have great defects such as insufficient fixation strength, susceptibility to re-fracture, etc. Stellate steel plate is novel material for internal fixation which has unique gear-like structure design. We used stellate steel plate for treatment of displaced avulsion fractures of posterior cruciate ligament in this study. Materials and Methods: 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; aged, 19-35 years; mean age, 28 years) with displaced avulsion fractures of the tibial insertion of the posterior cruciate ligament were retrospectively analyzed between June 2009 and June 2011. The mean duration from injury to the operation was 8.3 days (range 6-15 days). All the patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation of a stellate steel plate (DePuy, Raynham, MA 02767, USA). The Lysholm-Tegner knee function score criteria were used to analyze results. Results: The mean followup was 24.6 months (range 18-32 months). After 6 months, all the fractures healed and knee joint activity was normal, with no knee stiffness or instability. The Lysholm-Tegner scores were 97.1 ± 1.7 points at the final followup. Conclusion: Owing to its unique gear structure, the stellate steel plate design can effectively fix an avulsion fracture block and it is a simple operation with short postoperative rehabilitation time and firm fixation.
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Correlation between body mass index and chondral lesions in isolated medial meniscus tears p. 176
Barak Haviv, Shlomo Bronak, Rafael Thein
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152456  
Background:Chondral lesions of the knee are commonly found during arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. The literature advises against arthroscopic medial meniscectomy in the presence of advanced chondral derangement because of unfavorable outcome. Recent studies have shown an association between obesity and chondropathy in patients with meniscal tears. The aim of this study was to assess whether body mass index (BMI) correlates with the severity of chondral lesions in patients with isolated medial meniscus tears (i.e. without ligamentous or lateral meniscal injury). Materials and Methods: 837 knee arthroscopies were performed in a regional referral center of arthroscopic surgery between January 2011 and December 2012. Of these 168 (109 males, 59 females) patients with no axial knee deformity and no radiological signs of osteoarthritis who have had arthroscopic debridement for isolated torn medial meniscus were included in the study. The correlation between different demographic factors and the level of chondral damage reported at surgery was evaluated. The mean age of patient was 50 years (range 13-82 years) and an average BMI was 28.2 kg/m [2] (range17.5-42.5 kg/m [2] ). Results: Overall, regression analysis showed both age and BMI to be linearly correlated to chondral score (r = 0.53, P < 0.04); however, there were no advanced chondral lesions found in patients younger than 40 years of age and all severe lesions were at age 50 years or more. Therefore, further analysis was performed for age subgroups: patients were grouped as younger than 40, between the age of 40 and 50 (middle age) and older than 50 years. The BMI was linearly correlated to the severity of chondral score exclusively in the middle aged group (i.e. 40-50 years old). There was no correlation between activity level and chondral damage. Women had worse chondral lesions than men in all age groups. Conclusion: Higher BMI in middle aged patients with isolated medial meniscus tears and unremarkable radiographs may predict more advanced chondral lesions at arthroscopy.
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Fate of bone grafting for acetabular defects in total hip replacement p. 181
Anil Thomas Oommen, Vignesh Prasad Krishnamoorthy, Pradeep Mathew Poonnoose, Ravi Jacob Korula
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152462  
Background: The use of allografts and autografts in the management of acetabular defects have been reported with varying results. Trabecular metal is an expensive option in the management of these defects. This study aims to assess the fate and efficacy of bone grafting for acetabular bone defects in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 hips in 28 patients with acetabular deficiencies were treated with bone grafting and total hip replacement (THR). Seventeen hips had American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) type 2 (Paprosky type 2c) deficiency and 13 had AAOS type 3 (Paprosky type 3a) defects of the acetabulum. Allografts were used in 15 patients and autografts were used in the remaining 13. Cemented total hip arthroplasty was done in 18 hips and uncemented THR in 12. Seven patients underwent the procedure for, acetabular erosion and symptoms following hemiarthroplasty (4 out of 7), or, acetabular revision for failure (3 out of 7) following total hip arthroplasty. Acetabular deficiencies in other patients were due to posttraumatic causes, advanced primary hip arthritis and second stage treatment of postinfective arthritis. A mesh was used in 6 hips and screws were used in 13 hips for graft fixation. Results: Patients were followed up clinicoradiologically for a period of 10 months to 4 years (mean 23.4 months). One patient required staged revision due to infection. Two patients had early asymptomatic cup migration. One patient had graft lysis and change in cup inclination with persistent pain. He was not keen on further intervention at last followup. Other patients were pain free at the time of followup with radiographs showing maintenance of graft and implant position. Conclusion: Bone grafting is a suitable option in the management of acetabular defects in total hip arthroplasty, especially in resource challenged countries.
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Bone impregnated hip screw in femoral neck fracture Clinicoradiological results p. 187
PK Sundar Raj, Jiju A Nuuman, Amish Sunder Pattathil
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152472  
Background: Femoral neck fractures are treated either by internal fixation or arthroplasty. Usually, cannulated cancellous screws are used for osteosynthesis of fracture neck of femur. The bone impregnated hip screw (BIHS) is an alternative implant, where osteosyntehsis is required in femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: The BIHS is a hollow screw with thread diameter 8.3 mm, shank diameter 6.5 mm and wall thickness 2.2 mm and holes in the shaft of the screw with diameter 2 mm, placed in a staggered fashion. Biomechanical and animal experimental studies were done. Clinical study was done in two phases: Phase 1 in a group of volunteers, only with BIHS was used in a pilot study and phase 2 comparative study was done in a group with AO cannulated screws and the other group treated with BIHS. Results: In the phase 1 study, out of 15 patients, only one patient had delayed union. In phase 2, there were 78 patients, 44 patients in BIHS showed early union, compared to the rest 34 cases of AO cannulated screws Out of 44 patients with BIHS, 41 patients had an excellent outcome, 2 had nonunions and one implant breakage was noted. Conclusions: Bone impregnated hip screw has shown to provide early solid union since it incorporates the biomechanical principles and also increases the osteogenic potential and hence, found superior to conventional cannulated cancellous screw.
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Comparative study of single lateral locked plating versus double plating in type C bicondylar tibial plateau fractures Highly accessed article p. 193
Devdatta Suhas Neogi, Vivek Trikha, Kaushal Kant Mishra, Shivanand M Bandekar, Chandra Shekhar Yadav
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152478  
Background: Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries and treatment is challenging. Ideal method is still controversial with risk of unsatisfactory results if not treated properly. Many different techniques of internal and external fixation are used. This study compares the clinical results in single locked plating versus dual plating (DP) using two incision approaches. Our hypothesis was that DP leads to less collapse and change in alignment at final followup compared with single plating. Materials and Methods: 61 cases of Type C tibial plateau fractures operated between January 2007 and June 2011 were included in this prospective study. All cases were operated either by single lateral locked plate by anterolateral approach or double plating through double incision. All cases were followed for a minimum of 24 months radiologically and clinically. The statistical analysis was performed using software SPSS 10.0 to analyze the data. Results: Twenty nine patients in a single lateral locked plate and 32 patients in a double plating group were followed for minimum 2 years. All fractures healed, however there was a significant incidence of malalignment in the single lateral plating group. Though there was a significant increase in soft tissue issues with the double plating group; however, there was only 3.12% incidence of deep infection. There was no significant difference in Hospital for special surgery score at 2 years followup. Conclusion: Double plating through two incisions resulted in a better limb alignment and joint reduction with an acceptable soft tissue complication rate.
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Management of distal femoral periprosthetic fractures by distal femoral locking plate: A retrospective study. p. 199
Rajiv Thukral, SKS Marya, Chandeep Singh
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152480  
Background: Management of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures is difficult. Osteoporosis, comminution and bone loss, compromise stability with delayed mobility and poor functional outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with anatomic distal femoral (DF) locking plate permits early mobilization. However, this usually necessitates bone grafting (BG). Biological fixation using minimally invasive techniques minimizes periosteal stripping and morbidity. Materials and Methods: 31 patients with comminuted periprosthetic DF fractures were reviewed retrospectively from October 2006 to September 2012. All patients underwent fixation using a DF locking compression plate (Synthes). 17 patients underwent ORIF with primary BG, whereas 14 were treated by closed reduction (CR) and internal fixation using biological minimally invasive techniques. Clinical and radiological followup were recorded for an average 36 months. Results: Mean time to union for the entire group was 5.6 months (range 3-9 months). Patients of ORIF group took longer (Mean 6.4 months, range 4.5-9 months) than the CR group (mean 4.6 months, range 3-7 months). Three patients of ORIF and one in CR group had poor results. Mean knee society scores were higher for CR group at 6 months, but nearly identical at 12 months, with similar eventual range of motion. Discussion: Locked plating of comminuted periprosthetic DF fractures permits stable rigid fixation and early mobilization. Fixation using minimally invasive biological techniques minimizes morbidity and may obviate the need for primary BG.
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Correction of coronal plane deformities around the knee using a tension band plate in children younger than 10 years p. 208
Ruta M Kulkarni, Faizaan M Ilyas Rushnaiwala, GS Kulkarni, Rajiv Negandhi, Milind G Kulkarni, Sunil G Kulkarni
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152484  
Background: Guided growth through temporary hemiepiphysiodesis has gained acceptance as the preferred primary treatment in treating pediatric lower limb deformities as it is minimally invasive with a lesser morbidity than the traditional osteotomy. The tension band plate is the most recent development in implants used for temporary hemiepiphysiodesis. Our aim was to determine its safety and efficacy in correcting coronal plane deformities around the knee in children younger than 10 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 children under the age of 10 were operated for coronal plane deformities around the knee with a single extra periosteal tension band plate and two nonlocking screws. All the children had a pathological deformity for which a detailed preoperative work-up was carried out to ascertain the cause of the deformity and rule out physiological ones. The average age at hemiepiphysiodesis was 5 years 3 months (range: 2 years to 9 years 1 month). Results: The plates were inserted for an average of 15.625 months (range: 7 months to 29 months). All the patients showed improvement in the mechanical axis. Two patients showed partial correction. Two cases of screw loosening were observed. In the genu valgum group, the tibiofemoral angle improved from a preoperative mean of 19.89° valgus (range: 10° valgus to 40° valgus) to 5.72° valgus (range: 2° varus to 10° valgus). In patients with genu varum the tibiofemoral angle improved from a mean of 28.27° varus (range: 13° varus to 41° varus) to 1.59° valgus (range: 0-8° valgus). Conclusion: Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis through the application of the tension band plate is an effective method to correct coronal plane deformities around the knee with minimal complications. Its ease and accuracy of insertion has extended the indication of temporary hemiepiphysiodesis to patients younger than 10 years and across a wide variety of diagnosis including pathological physis, which were traditionally out of the purview of guided growth.
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Supination external rotation ankle fractures A simpler pattern with better outcomes p. 219
Nirmal C Tejwani, Ji Hae Park, Kenneth A Egol
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152487  
Background: Rotational injuries are the most common and usually classified as per the Lauge Hansen classification; with the most common subgroup being the supination external rotation (SER) mechanism. Isolated fractures of the distal fibula (SE2) without associated ligamentous injury are usually treated with a splint or brace and the patient may be allowed to weight bear as tolerated. This study reports the functional outcomes following a stable, low energy, rotational ankle fracture supination external rotation (SER2) when compared to unstable SER4 fractures treated operatively. Materials and Methods: 64 patients who were diagnosed and treated nonoperatively for a stable SER2 ankle fracture were followed prospectively. In the comparison group, 93 operatively treated fibular fractures were extracted from a prospectively collected database and evaluated comparison. Baseline characteristics obtained by trained interviewers at the time of injury included: Patient demographics, short form-36, short musculoskeletal functional assessment (SMFA) and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) questionnaires. Patients were followed at 3, 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Additional information obtained at each followup point included any complications or evidence on fracture healing. Data were analyzed by the Student's t-test and theFisher's Exact Test to compare demographic and functional outcomes between the two cohorts. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The average of patients' age in the stable fracture cohort was 43 versus 45 in the SER4 group. Nearly 64% of the patient population was female when compared with 37% in the operative group. In the SER2 by 6 months all patients had returned to baseline functional status. There were 18 delayed unions (all healed by 6 months). Based on the functional outcome scores all patients had returned to preoperative level. In comparison, SE4 patients had less functional recovery at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05) based on the SMFA scores and at 3, 6 and 12 months based on the AOFAS (P < 0.001) scores. There was no difference in pain levels between the two groups at all time points. There were three nonunions in the SE4 group and six delayed unions. Conclusions: An SER2 ankle fracture is a relatively benign injury with functional limitations resolving by 3 months while the need for surgical fixation in SER ankle fractures appears to affect lower extremity function to a greater degree for a longer time period. Patients should be counseled as to these expected outcomes.
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Measurement technique of calcaneal varus from axial view radiograph p. 223
Thossart Harnroongroj, Akegapon Tangmanasakul, Nattapol Choursamran, Narumol Sudjai, Thos Harnroongroj
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152489  
Background: Medial displaced posterior calcaneal tubercle creates varus deformity of an intraarticular calcaneal fracture. The fracture involves posterior calcaneal facet and the calcaneal body so we developed a measurement technique representing the angle between posterior facet and long axis of calcaneus using lateral malleolus and longitudinal bone trabeculae of posterior calcaneal tubercle as references to obtain calcaneal varus angle. Materials and Methods: 52 axial view calcaneal radiographs of 26 volunteers were studied. Angles between posterior facet and long axis of calcaneus were measured using the measurements 1 and 2. Angle of measurement 1, as gold standard, was obtained from long axis and posterior facet of calcaneus whereas measurement 2 was obtained from a line, perpendicular to apex curve of lateral cortex of the lateral malleolus and a line parallel to the longitudinal bone trabeculae of posterior calcaneal tubercle. No more than 3° of difference in the angle of both measurements was accepted. Reliability of the measurement 2 was statistically tested. Results: Angles of measurement 1 and 2 were 90.04° ± 4.00° and 90.58° ± 3.78°. Mean of different degrees of both measurements was 0.54° ± 2.31° with 95% of confidence interval: 0.10°-1.88°. The statistical analysis of measurement 1 and 2 showed more than 0.75 of ICC and 0.826 of Pearson correlation coefficient. Conclusion: Technique of measurement 2 using lateral malleolus and longitudinal bone trabeculae of posterior calcaneal tubercle as references has strong reliability for representing the angle between long axis and posterior facet of calcaneus to achieve calcaneal varus angle.
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Locking plate versus retrograde intramedullary nail fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis A retrospective analysis p. 227
Chi Zhang, Zhongmin Shi, Guohua Mei
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152492  
Background: Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) surgery is indicated for the end-stage disease of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints.Although different fixation technique of TTCA has been proposed to achieve high fusion rate and low complication rate, there is still no consensus upon this point. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy of retrograde intramedullary nail fixation (RINF) and locking plate fixation (LPF) for TTCA. Materials and Methods: Fifty four patients who underwent TTCA through the lateral approach with lateral fibular osteotomy using RINF (32 patients, 18 male/14 female, mean age: 48) or LPF (22 patients, 12 male/10 female, mean age: 51) between January 2007 and January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics, surgery (operation time, blood loss) outcomes (postoperative fusion rates, visual analog scale and foot and ankle surgery score and complications) were compared. Results: The LPF group had a shorter operation time (72.3 ± 9.2 vs. 102.8 ± 11.1 min, P < 0.001), less blood loss (75.9 ± 20.2 vs. 140.0 ± 23.8 ml, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative fluoroscopy sessions (3.6 ± 0.9 vs. 8.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001) than the RINF group. Patients were followed up for 12-24 months (mean of 16.2 months). Both groups had similar postoperative fusion rates (90.6% and 95.4%) and the LPF group showed a nonsignificant lower complication rate (18.2% vs. 28.1% respectively). Patients at higher risk on nonunion due to rheumatoid diseases may have a lower nonunion rate with LPF than RINF (one out of eight vs. three out of nine, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The LPF for TTCA was simpler to perform compared with RINF, but with similar postoperative outcomes and complication rates.
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Medium term outcomes of primary and revision Coonrad-Morrey total elbow replacement p. 233
Manish Kiran, Arpit Jariwala, Carlos Wigderowitz
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152497  
Background: Total elbow replacement (TER) is indicated in inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis and fractures that are not amenable to reconstruction. There is no series in literature, to the best of our knowledge, regarding the results of revision of the Souter-Strathclyde prosthesis (SSP) to the Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis (CMP). The aim of this study is to present the medium term results of primary CMP total elbow replacement and revision of the SSP to CMP. Materials and Methods: 50 primary CMPs (Group I) and 11 revision CMPs (Group II) were included in the study. Demographic, operative, followup and radiological data were analysed. The indication for revision of the primary implant was peri-prosthetic fracture in six cases, aseptic loosening in four cases and instability in one case. Results: The mean age in Group I was 67.28 ± 12.45 years and in Group II was 57.09 ± 11.25 years. The mean period of followup was 8.08 ± 2.95 years and 7.46 ± 2.39. There was a significant improvement in range of motion and pain in both groups. The complications seen were nerve palsy, infection, fractures and heterotopic ossification. The 5-year survival rate in Group I was 94%. The results were good in 36 elbows, fair in 8 elbows and poor in 5 elbows. In Group II, the results were good in 8 elbows, fair in 2 elbows and poor in 1 elbow. The complications seen were nerve palsy, fractures and heterotopic ossification. Discussion: Primary CMP TER provides a functionally useful range of movement of 100° which is enough to perform most activities of daily living. It also produces a pain free and stable joint. Similar results are achieved after revision of the SSP to CMP. The unique toggle-hinge mechanism of articulation provides inherent stability and good survivorship. Conclusion: Semiconstrained prostheses like CMP provide good functional results and survivorship and are the implant of choice in both primary and revision total elbow replacements.
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Fractalkine receptor chemokine (CX3CR1) influences on cervical and lumbar disc herniation p. 239
In-Soo Oh, Dong-Whan Suh, Sung-Ryeoll Park, Kee-Yong Ha
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152505  
Background: Herniation of nuclear or disc material along with, inflammatory chemokines such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase and nitric oxide has definite correlation, possibly they are over produced. CX3CL1 and its receptor (CX3CR1) are part of chemokine system involved in leukocyte recruitment and adhesion in chronic inflammatory disease, but its role in spinal herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is unknown. We evaluated the expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in patients with disc herniation to clarify the role of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in the disc degeneration and to compare between cervical and lumbar HNP. Materials and Methods: The mRNA concentrations of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine were analyzed in the surgically obtained disc specimens from C-HNP (n = 13) and L-HNP (n = 13) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The localization of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine in the disc of C-HNP and L-HNP patients was determined using immunohistochemical study. Blood samples from patients with C-HNP and L-HNP patients were stained for CX3CR1 with flow cytometric analysis. Results: The CX3CL1 positive cell ratio in the discs was observed in both groups by immunohistochemical study. CX3CR1 was strongly expressed on endothelial cells in C-spine disc, but sparely expressed in L-spine disc. There was greater CX3CR1 mRNA expression in C-HNP patients than in L-HNP patients as quantified by reversal transcription-PCR (P = 0.010). CX3CR1 positive cell frequencies and CX3CR1 expression levels were increased in CD4 (+) T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells from patients with C-HNP (P = 0.210 and P = 0.040). Conclusions: This study identified that increases in CX3CL1 and CX3CR1-expressing cells are significantly related to pathomechanism of HNP for the first time. Especially, CD4 (+) T-cells and NK cells expressing CX3CR1 may play an important role in developing C-HNP.
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Percutaneous vertebroplasty for single osteoporotic vertebral body compression fracture Results of unilateral 3-D percutaneous puncture technique p. 245
Hong-De Li, Chuan-Jun Xu, Hong Wang, Wen Liu, Xi-Jing Jiang, Xi-Qi Zhu
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152514  
Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) has been gradually used for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) treatment, but severe osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures (sOVCFs) due to the difficulty in performing a puncture and the characteristics of the fractured vertebrae, it has been considered as a contraindication to PVP. The aim of the following study was to evaluate the feasibility of a unilateral, three-dimensional (3D), accurate puncture in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for a single, severely osteoporotic vertebral body compression fracture (ssOVCFs). Materials and Methods: 57 patients received PVP in the current study. Feasibility of a unilateral approach was judged before surgery using the 64-slice helical computed tomography (CT) multiplanar reconstruction technique, a 3D accurate puncture plan was then determined. The skin bone distance, puncture angle and needle insertion depth were recorded during surgery. 2D CT rechecking was performed for any complication at day 1 after operation. Preoperative and postoperative numerical data were compared. Results: The procedure was completed smoothly in all patients. 2D CT scanning at day 1 after operation did not show any puncture related complications. Visual analog scoring (VAS) showed that the score at day 3 after surgery was reduced to 1.7 ± 0.4 (0-2.9 scale) from the preoperative 7.9 ± 2.1 (6.1-9.5 scale). No significant differences in measure numerical data were found before and after the surgery. At 12 months followup three patients presented with nonadjacent level fractures, VAS for other patients were 1.2 ± 0.3 (0-2.1 scale). Conclusions: Application of CT scanning for a unilateral 3D puncture design helps realize an accurate puncture in PVP. It is a safe and effective method for ssOVCFs treatment.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Arthroscopic one-piece reshaping for symptomatic discoid medial meniscus with anomalous amalgamating into anterior cruciate ligament p. 251
Hyung Suk Choi
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152517  
Discoid shapes of lateral menisci are relatively common finding, whereas discoid medial menisci are less common. Discoid medial meniscus with associated anomalous variants has been reported. However, symptomatic complex tear of complete type discoid medial meniscus with anomalous blending with anterior cruciate ligament is an extremely rare pathology. A 35-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with left knee pain and loss of terminal extension for 2 years. On physical examination, the patient presented with clicking and restriction during the extension motion of the knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy indicated complex tear of complete discoid medial meniscus in association with anomalous connection between entire apical portion of discoid medial meniscus and tibial insertion portion of the anterior cruciate ligament. We obtained a successful outcome with arthroscopic resection and shaping in one-piece method using no. 11 scalpel blade.
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Anterior fracture dislocation of sacroiliac joint: A rare type of crescent fracture p. 255
Vivek Trikha, Vivek Singh, V Senthil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152527  
Crescent fractures of the pelvis are usually described as posterior sacro iliac fracture dislocations. Rarely anterior displacement of the fractured iliac fragment along with dislocation has been reported in crescent fractures. Four cases of anterior fracture dislocation of the sacro iliac joint managed in the last two years by a single surgeon are presented. The injury mechanism, radiological diagnosis, management protocol along with functional outcomes of all the four patients have been discussed. CT scan is essential in the diagnosis and preoperative planning of this injury pattern. Early fixation along with proper reduction leads to excellent functional outcome in this subset of lateral compression injuries of the pelvis.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Intraarticular osteochondroma of the knee p. 260
Aditya V Maheshwari, J David Pitcher
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152547  
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Author's reply p. 262
Vivek Machhindra Morey, Divesh Jalan, Ravi Mittal, Shivanand Gamangatti
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Microendoscopic lumbar discectomy: Technique and results of 188 cases p. 262
Evangelos Kogias, Pamela Franco Jimenez, Ulrich Hubbe
DOI:10.4103/0019-5413.152551  
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Author's reply p. 263
Arvind G Kulkarni, Anupreet Bassi, Abhilash Dhruv
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Apley and Solomon's concise system of orthopedics and trauma p. 264
Anil K Jain
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