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   Table of Contents - Current issue
November-December 2016
Volume 50 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 581-697

Online since Monday, November 07, 2016

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What is plagiarism and how to avoid it? Highly accessed article p. 581
Ish Kumar Dhammi, Rehan Ul Haq
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Post operative pain management in shoulder surgery: Suprascapular and axillary nerve block by arthroscope assisted catheter placement p. 584
H Çağdaş Basat, D Hakan Uçar, Mehmet Armangil, Berk Güçlü, Mehmet Demirtaş
Background: Postoperative pain management is the part of shoulder surgery to improve patient satisfaction, start rehabilitation process rapidly and decrease for hospital stay. Various treatment modalities have been used for pain management, but they have some limitations, side effects and risks. Throughout intraoperative and postoperative period, nerve blocks have been used more popularly than others because of efficacy. For the regional nerve block, local anesthetic should be infiltrated close to the nerve for maximum effect. Consequently, aim of this study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy when catheters are placed with assistance of arthroscope to block suprascapular and axillary nerves in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: 24 patients (5 males, 19 females; mean age: 54.3 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff between June 2014 and September 2014 and were catheterized to block suprascapular and axillary nerves during shoulder arthroscopy were included in the study. Clinical outcomes were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) scores preoperatively and at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, and postoperative day 2. Results: Preoperative and postoperative 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h, and day 2 mean VAS scores were 6.38 ± 0.77, 0.44 ± 0.42, 0.58 ± 0.42, 0.63 ± 0.40, 0.60 ± 0.44, 0.52 ± 0.42, and 1.55 ± 0.46, respectively. No statistical difference was found among 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, and 24 h time points; however, comparison of postoperative day 2 and postoperative 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18h and 24 h VAS scores showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). All patients were discharged at the end of 24 h with no complication. The mean time (in minutes) required for blocking suprascapular nerve and axillar nerve were 14.38 ± 3.21 and 3.75 ± 0.85, respectively. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that blocking two nerves with arthroscopic approach was an excellent pain management method in postoperative period. Accordingly, patients could recover rapidly and patients' satisfaction could be improved.
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Functional outcome after primary hemiarthroplasty in three or four part proximal humerus fracture: A short term followup p. 590
Saurabh Agarwal, Ashish Rana, Rajeev K Sharma
Background: Several modalities of treatment are being used for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Primary hemiarthroplasty in proximal humerus fracture is indicated in three or four part fracture or fracture dislocations. It is also indicated if fracture involves a large area of articular cartilage loss and viability of head is doubtful. We studied the functional outcome of hemiarthroplasty in comminuted proximal humerus fracture. Materials and Methods: 29 patients of three or four part proximal humerus fractures, (according to Neer's classification) who underwent primary shoulder hemiarthroplasty were included in this retrospective study. 20 patients were of more than 55 years of age. Functional evaluation based on Constant score and radiological assessment by periodic X-rays were done. All patients were operated in a 'beach chair position'. The lesser and greater tuberosities were dissected with their tendinous attachments and were later reattached to the proximal humerus for stability of the prosthesis. Cemented prosthesis was used in all cases. Results: Three patients died and two patients were lost to followup during the course of the study, so 24 patients were finally included in the study. Mean Constant score was 56.62 (range 42.5-65.5) after mean followup of 18.28 months (range 12-24 months). Mean anterior elevation was 118.2° (range 75°-150°) and mean active abduction was 102°(range 50°-135°). Nineteen patients (79.16%) were satisfied about their functional outcome. Proximal migration of tuberosity was present in four patients. These patients had decreased abduction with impingement. One patient had higher placement of prosthesis and one patient had radiolucency at bone cement interface. There were no heterotopic ossification, dislocation, superficial, or deep infection. Conclusion: This study showed that hemiarthroplasty in a grossly comminuted proximal humerus fracture is a viable alternative to osteosynthesis. Tuberosity healing plays a main role in good range of motion and better functional outcome after shoulder hemiarthroplasty.
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Functional outcome of intraarticular distal humerus fracture fixation using triceps-sparing paratricipital approach p. 595
Vishal Yadav, Pulak Sharma, Ashish Gohiya
Background: Displaced intraarticular distal humerus fracture has been conventionally treated operatively with various triceps disrupting approaches. These approaches are associated with several complications, such as triceps weakness, nonunion or delayed union of osteotomy, implant prominence, and delayed mobilization of the elbow. We present the functional outcome of intraarticular distal humerus fracture fixation using a triceps-sparing paratricipital approach which allows early elbow mobilization and preserving triceps strength. Materials and Methods: Twenty five patients with intraarticular distal humerus fracture were operated using triceps-sparing paratricipital approach with orthogonal plate construct. There were 16 male and 9 female patients and average age was 42.16 years (range 23-65 years). The mechanism of injury was fall from height (n = 8), road traffic accident (n = 13) and ground level fall (n = 4). Clinical, radiological, and functional assessment with Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) were obtained at follow up period. Results: All fractures united primarily. At the mean follow up of 13.58 months (range 6-22 months), mean elbow flexion was 121.08° (range 94°–142°) and mean motion arc was 114.92°(range 65°-140°). The mean MEPI score was 94.40 points (range 70–100) with 17 excellent, five good, and three fair results. The mean flexion deformity or extension loss was 6.16° (range 5°–15°). Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of intraarticular distal humerus fractures with triceps-sparing paratricipital approach provide adequate exposure with no adverse effect on triceps muscle strength and allows early initiation of elbow motion. We analyzed, age and injury to surgical interval with relation to functional range of elbow using Z-test which is insignificant.
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Results of neurolysis in established upper limb Volkmann's ischemic contracture p. 602
Dinesh K Meena, Srikiran Thalanki, Poornima Patni, Ram Khiladi Meena, Dinesh Bairawa, Chirag Bhatia
Background: Treatment of established cases of Volkmann's ischemic contracture (VIC) of upper limb is very tedious. Since the period of Volkmann, various experimental works are being performed for its treatment, but none are effective. Disabilities from nerve palsy and hand muscle paralysis are more problematic than any other deformity in VIC. To solve these problems, we conducted a study to see the result of neurolysis of median and ulnar nerve and their subcutaneous placement in established cases of VIC. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of established VIC operated between July 2007 and August 2010 with complete records and followup were included in the study. VIC of lower limb and contracture of nonischemic etiology were excluded from the study. Their evaluation was done by the British Medical Research Council grading system for sensory and motor recovery. Followup was done for an average period of 24.3 months (range 15-30 months) (the average age was 8.3 years). Results: To study the results, we divided the cases into two series. One group consisted of cases which were operated within 6 months from onset of VIC. The second group consisted of cases which were operated after 6 months from onset of VIC. Our results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups operated, though both had significant improvement in motor and sensory recovery in both median and ulnar nerve distribution. Conclusions: Neurolysis of the nerves definitely improved the outcome for motor and sensory components of median and ulnar nerves but the timing of the surgery did not play a role in the outcome contrary to the clinical assumption. This study can serve as a template and further such studies could help us find the answer to a long standing issue.
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Morphometry of distal end radius in the Indian population: A radiological study p. 610
Pankaj Kumar Mishra, Manoj Nagar, Suresh Chandra Gaur, Anuj Gupta
Introduction: The morphometry of distal end radius (DER) comprises the four necessary parameters: radial inclination, palmer tilt, radial height, and ulnar variance. The unblemished intellect about the morphometry is urged for the management of fracture of DER. The goal of our study was to determine the values of morphometric parameters of the DER from the adult Indian. Materials and Methods: It was a single hospital- based observational cross-sectional, prospective study. Radial inclination, radial height, and ulnar variance were measured on posteroanterior view, and the measurement of palmer tilt was accomplished on the lateral view. All the statistical analysis was done by Microsoft XL 2007 (data add in function were installed for data analysis). T-test was used for comparing the means of the parameters. Results: Two hundred and forty two (n = 242) X-rays were included in this study to analyze. The mean value (n = 242) of radial inclination was 23.27°± (standard deviation [SD]) 7.42° (range: 11.3–42.1°), palmer tilt 10.07° ± (SD) 5.28° (range: 1–16.9°), radial height 11.31 mm ± (SD) 4.9 mm (range: 7.1–30.4 mm), and ulnar variance 0.66 mm ± (SD) 2.46 mm (range: −2.4 to +4.1). Conclusion: This study may provide an inauguratory plinth to prosecute the further analytical research in the Indian population. Moreover, the data may also be used as a reference data for the anatomical alignment while treating the injuries of the DER in the Indian population.
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Scapholunate ligament reconstruction using the palmaris longus tendon and suture anchor fixation in chronic scapholunate instability p. 616
Maulik Jagdish Gandhi, Timothy Paul Knight, Peter John Ratcliffe
Background: Multiple reconstruction techniques have been described in the management of chronic scapholunate (SL) instability, either based on the capsulodesis or tenodesis principle. It is uncertain which surgical method produces the best patient outcomes. We describe results of a technique using palmaris longus (PL) tendon for surgical reconstruction of the SL ligament and provide functional outcomes scores. Materials and Methods: We surgically reconstructed the SL ligament using a PL tendon graft secured with Mitek® bone anchors. Surgical technique with photographs is provided in the main text. Functional outcomes were measured using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand and Mayo wrist scores. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a simple measure. Results: Eleven patients attended mid-term followup (mean 45.8 months post-surgery) and had functional outcomes and satisfaction of this procedure that compared favorably to case series that used tenodesis for chronic SL ligament injuries. Almost all patients (n = 10) were able to return to regular employment. The majority of patients (n = 10) were satisfied with their primary reconstruction procedure. Conclusion: This technique avoids the use of drill holes to weave tendon through bone, uses an easy to access graft, and exploits the superior pullout strength of anchors while offering satisfactory functional outcomes that are comparable to alternative tenodesis techniques.
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Percutaneous vertebroplasty guided by preoperative computed tomography measurements p. 622
Zhongbao Tan, Zhenhai Di, Xuequn Mao, Jian Zhang, Rong Zou, Qingqing Wang
Background: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is now widely performed to treat painful vertebral compression fractures. Previous researches have reported numerous advantages. However, it rarely reported that how to determine the feasibility of the unilateral or bilateral approach and how to decide the puncture angle, the skin insertion site before the procedure. The aim of this study was to discuss the feasibility of PVP using unilateral pedicular approach by the three-dimensional positioning of computed tomography (CT) image. Materials and Methods: Under fluoroscopic guidance, 108 patients with 115 diseased vertebral bodies underwent PVP. The study was divided in two groups. Group A, fifty patients with 52 vertebrae received PVP without using preoperative CT measurements and puncture simulation. Group B, 58 patients with 63 vertebrae received PVP using preoperative CT measurements and puncture simulation. The skin needle entry point and puncture angle of the transverse plane and sagittal plane were determined by the software of PACS on preoperative CT image. The choice of unilateral or bilateral pedicular approach was decided based on the CT image before the procedure. PVP was carried out according to the measurement result above. The average time for a single vertebra operation, the success rate of single puncture and complications was evaluated and compared between Group A and Group B. Results: In Group A, technical success of unilateral PVP was 63.5% (33/52 vertebrae), and 92% (58/63 vertebrae) in Group B. The average time of operation in Groups A and B were (37.5 ± 5.5) and (28.5 ± 5.5) min, respectively. There was a significant difference in the time of single-vertebra operation and the success rates of unilateral PVP between Groups A and B. No serious complications developed during the followup period. Conclusions: The CT three-dimensional positioning measurement for PVP can increase the success rate of unilateral PVP.
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Core decompression or quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone grafting for nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A randomized control study p. 629
Deqiang Li, Ming Li, Peilai Liu, Yuankai Zhang, Liang Ma, Fei Xu
Background: The traditional management for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) includes core decompression (CD) and quadratus femoris muscle pedicle bone graft (QF-MPBG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CD and QF-MPBG on the patients with nontraumatic ONFH in an early stage. Materials and Methods: 39 patients (47 hips) with ONFH in an early stage (Ficat Stage I or II) were randomly divided into two groups according to random number table method. One group was treated with CD and cancellous bone grafting. Another group was treated QF-MPBG with cancellous bone grafting. The hip function was evaluated using Harris hip score (HHS). The repair of the femoral head was estimated through X-ray, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The surgical time and intraoperative blood loss was calculated. Results: All patients were followed for an average 2.5 years (range from 1.5 to 4 years). Two hips in CD group progressed into stage 3 and three hips in QF-MPBG group processed into stage 3. No patient accepted the THA at the last followup. The HHSs significantly increased in both groups after surgery (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were found between CD and QF-MPBG groups in postoperative HHSs at last followup (P > 0.05). X-ray and CT showed that the femoral head did not progress to collapse after operation in both groups. In addition, MRI showed that the edema signals decreased. However, the surgical time was longer in QF-MPBG group than that in CD group (P < 0.05). The intraoperative blood loss was more in QF-MPBG than that in CD group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The CD with bone graft could relieve hip pain, improve hip function with much lesser surgical trauma compared to QF-MPBG. Hence, the CD with bone graft should be generally used for the treatment of patients with an early stage (Ficat Stage I or II) ONFH.
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Results of a compression pin alongwith trochanteric external fixation in management of high risk elderly intertrochanteric fractures p. 636
Aydin Arslan, Ali Utkan, Tuba Tulay Koca
Background: External fixation is a well-known procedure for the management of intertrochanteric fractures in very elderly high-risk patients. A new compression pin that can be adapted to all fixators was designed to provide inter fragmentary compression. In the present study, its effects on the fracture stability and healing were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients treated using compression pin and thirty-six patients treated using standard pins were evaluated retrospectively between January 2009 and July 2014. Patients were evaluated according to age, gender, duration of preoperative period, duration of operation time, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, and immediate postoperative and final femoral neck angle measurements. The stability of the fixation was evaluated by calculating the secondary varus angulation after weight bearing. Results: Thirty one patients (82.1 ± 6.1 years old) comprised the compression pin group, and 36 patients (83.33 ± 6.24 years old) comprised the standard pin group. From the time of weight bearing to healing time, 1.0 ± 1.25° (0–4) and 2.5 ± 1.8° (0–9) of secondary varus angulation in the compression pin and standard pin groups were measured, respectively (P = 0.000). With weight bearing, 2 of 31 (6%) and 9 of 36 (25%) patients in the compression and standard pin groups, respectively, had >4° of secondary varus angulation. In the compression pin group, 13 fractures were unstable, but only 2 (15%) of them had >4° of secondary varus angulation. In the standard pin group, 19 fractures were unstable, and 7 (37%) of them had >4° of secondary varus angulation. Conclusions: Treatment of very elderly, high risk patients' with intertrochanteric fractures with external fixation is effective. Compression pin maintained stability better than standard pins after weight bearing, especially for unstable intertrochanteric fractures.
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PFNA-II protrusion over the greater trochanter in the Asian population used in proximal femoral fractures p. 641
Sun-Jun Hu, Shi-Min Chang, Zhuo Ma, Shou-Chao Du, Liang-Ping Xiong, Xin Wang
Background: The treatment of proximal femoral fractures in geriatric osteoporotic patients continues to be a challenge in orthopaedic trauma. Various kinds of cephalomedullary nails, such as gamma nail, InterTan and PFNA were used clinically. The latest generation PFNA II, specially designed for Asian population, is commonly used for geriatric per-/intertrochanteric fractures. The aim of this study was to determine whether the current PFNA-II proximal segment length is suitable for the greater trochanter height, as assessed by postoperative radiograph measurements. Materials and Methods: 51 consecutive patients with per-/intertrochanteric fractures treated with the PFNA-II between July 2012 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. There were 19 males and 32 females, with an average age of 78.6 years (range 66–92 years). According to AO/OTA classification system, there were 4 cases of 31A1 fractures, 35 cases of 31A2 fractures, and 12 cases of 31A3 fractures. The nail protrusion height over the lateral greater trochanter and the Parker ratio of the helical blade tip in the femoral head were measured and compared using pelvic digital anteroposterior radiographs taken within 2 weeks postoperatively. Patients were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year to check whether they had lateral trochanter pain. Results: Postoperative digital anteroposterior (AP) films were used for assessment and any prominence was recorded as positive. Overall, nail protrusion over the greater trochanter occurred in 87.8% of cases. In 60.8% of the cases, protrusion height was >5 mm. The average protrusion height was 6.25 ± 4.27 mm (male average 4.84 ± 4.38 mm, and female average 7.09 ± 4.70 mm). The average Parker ratio of all cases was 51.0 ± 6.9% (male average 49.8 ± 7.5% and female average 51.7 ± 6.5%). Protrusion height was positively correlated (r = 0.394, P= 0.004) with the helical blade position in the femoral head (Parker ratio). Clinically, a total of 42 patients were followed up at an average of 15.0 ± 2.6 months (range 12–24 months) they were able to walk independently or with a stick. There were 13 patients with lateral trochanter pain on the injured side. Protrusion height of these patients was 11.13 ± 3.75 mm, whereas the protrusion height of the remaining 29 patients was 3.87 ± 3.39 mm. Conclusions: There was a morphologic mismatch between the proximal segment length of the PFNA-II and the greater trochanter in the Asian population, which may be the cause of postoperative lateral trochanter pain. A modification to shorten the proximal part of the nail is proposed to avoid protrusion over the greater trochanter.
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What have we learned from 100% success of press fit condylar rotating platform posterior stabilized knees?: A 5-10 years followup by a nondesigner p. 647
Shrinand V Vaidya, Siddharth Virani, Rajendra Phunde, Abhishek Mahajan
Background: Total joint arthroplasties of the hip and knee represent a remarkable feat of modern medicine in terms of reducing pain and restoring function to millions of patients afflicted with severe arthritis. Oftentimes, the performance and longevity of new implants and devices are based on limited data. This is the first study by a non-designer on the press fit condylar rotating platform posterior stabilized (PFC-RP-PS) design with 100% success. This has a relevance, vis-á -vis bias that one may have in terms of reproducibility of technique and funding from the manufacturer. We associate our excellent mid-term results to intra operative technical aspects and stringent intra operative exclusion criteria. Materials and Methods: Our study includes a cohort of 121 selected knees operated between January 2003 and October 2010. We used cemented, posterior stabilized (PS), mobile bearing (MB), and RP prosthesis from the same manufacturer in all these 121 knees. The patients were evaluated bi-annually with the calculation of their Knee Society Scores (KSS) and a radiological assessment for loosening/osteolysis. Results: 120 knees were available for followup. The average Knee Society clinical and functional scores, respectively, were 27 points and 40 points preoperatively and 93 points and 95 points postoperatively. This indicates a mean increase of about 71% in the clinical score and about 58% in the functional score, which is statistically significant. The mean postoperative flexion was 124°, a mean increase of 23° from the preoperative flexion of 101°. There were no revisions (Kaplan-–Meier survivorship of 100%). Conclusions: We feel durable and reproducible results of PFC-RP-PS design knees are very technique sensitive. The way ahead with the PFC-RP-PS knees looks promising when the exclusion criteria for this design are strictly met. Coming from a non-designer, this study acquires a higher degree of relevance without any designer's or manufacturer's bias.
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Functional and computed tomography correlation of femoral and tibial tunnels in single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Use of accessory anteromedial portal p. 655
Naveen Joseph Mathai, Rajkumar S Amaravathi, KV Pavan, Padmanabhan Sekaran, Gaurav Sharma, Belliappa Codanda
Background: An accessory anteromedial portal (AAMP) has been shown to be effective in placing an anatomically ideal femoral tunnel. It is well known that this is due to the independent femoral drilling which is possible with the AAMP. However very little is known regarding the significance of this reconstruction technique in influencing the functional outcomes of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study documents the influence of tibial and femoral tunnel positions on functional outcomes of anatomic ACLR using the AAMP. Materials and Methods: 41 patients who underwent anatomic ACLR between 2011 and 2013 were included in this prospective cohort study. The primary outcome involved the documentation of femoral and tibial tunnel positions with volume rendering imaging using a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) done at the end of 1 year. The tunnel position evaluations from the CT images were performed by an independent observer specializing in radiodiagnosis. Functional outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative Lysholm and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores (subjective) documented by an independent investigator who was not involved with the surgical procedure, at the end of 1 year. Results: The minimum followup was 1 year. All patients achieved good clinical and functional outcomes postoperatively with no reported complications. Tunnel position evaluations with 3D-CT revealed the average tibial tunnel distance to be 15.5 mm (standard deviation [SD] =2.52) from the anterior border of the tibial plateau and the average femoral tunnel distance to be 14.33 mm (SD = 2.6) from the inferior margin of the medial surface of lateral femoral condyle and 13.72 mm (SD = 2.8) from the posterior margin of the medial surface of lateral femoral condyle. The average tunnel diameters were found to be 7.9 mm (SD = 0.72) for the tibial tunnels and 8.6 mm (SD = 1.07) for the femoral tunnels. Statistically significant correlation between the tibial tunnel distance and the IKDC scores with anterior placement of tibial tunnel were found; however, no such statistical relationship were found between the femoral tunnel positions and the functional outcome measures. Conclusion: AAMP gives an ideal approach to drill the femoral tunnel independently. However, the influence of this tunnel placement on long term functional outcomes of ACLR needs to be assessed on larger cohort of patients.
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Talocalcaneal coalition: A focus on radiographic findings and sites of bridging p. 661
Soon Hyuck Lee, Hyung Jun Park, Eui Dong Yeo, Young Koo Lee
Background: Verifying the exact location of talocalcaneal (TC) coalition is important for surgery, but the complicated anatomy of the subtalar joint makes it difficult to visualize on radiographs. No study has used computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to verify the radiological characteristics of TC coalition or those of different facet coalitions. Therefore, this study verified the radiological findings used to identify TC coalitions and those of different facet coalitions using CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: Plain with/without weight bearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, CT, and MRI of 43 feet in 39 patients with TC coalitions were reviewed retrospectively. CT or MRI was used to verify the location of the TC coalition. Secondary signs for the presence of a coalition in the anteroposterior and lateral plain radiographs, including talar beak, humpback sign, duck-face sign, and typical or deformed C-sign, were evaluated. Three independent observers evaluated the radiographs twice at 6-week intervals to determine intraobserver reliability. They examined the radiographs for the secondary signs, listed above, and coalition involved facets. Results: The average rates from both assessments were as follows: Middle facet 5%, middle and posterior facets 27%, and posterior facet 68%. The deformed C-sign is more prevalent in posterior facet coalitions. The posterior facet has the highest prevalence of involvement in TC coalitions, and the deformed C-sign and duck-face sign have high correlations with TC coalitions in the posterior subtalar facet. Conclusion: A posterior facet is the most prevalent for TC coalition, and the C-sign is useful for determining all types of TC coalition.
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Estimation of drug absorption in antibiotic soaked bone grafts p. 669
Manish Ramesh Shah, Rukesh R Patel, Randhirsinh V Solanki, Shailendra H Gupta
Introduction: There is paucity of literature about antibiotic uptake in bone grafts soaked in antibiotic solutions at room temperature in the operation theatre. We hypothesized that if bone grafts are dipped in different strengths of antibiotic solutions for sufficient period, their utilization at the target site helps in localized release of antibiotics in adequate inhibitory concentration to achieve the bacterial regression. The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) Optimum duration, strength, and volume of antibiotic solution required for dipping bone grafts at room temperature prior to the use. (2) What could be the clinical implications of the results obtained? Materials and Methods: Bone shavings from total knee replacements were processed, frozen and transported to bio-analytical laboratory. The bone fragments were then impregnated with different volume and different strength of gentamicin and vancomycin over different time periods. The soaked bone samples underwent further processing for analysis on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. Results: After series of bio-analytical estimation for the soaked drug concentration among bone fragments; the optimal estimation was found with 0.2 mL of 2% strength of gentamicin and vancomycin, the optimal time was found with soakage up to 30 min. These estimated values of soaked antibiotics were five 5 times higher than required minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial regression. Conclusion: Use of antibiotic soaked bone allografts at target sites as potential drug carrier can be a hassle- free yet cost- effective and safe process for achieving maximum bacterial regression.
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The inferior medial genicular artery and its vascularization of the pes anserinus superficialis: A cadaveric study p. 677
Lena Hirtler, Manuel Ederer, Mike Faber, Patrick Weninger
Background: A common method for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is it's replacement by a free avascular graft, using the gracilis and/or semitendinosus tendons. These grafts pass a vulnerable phase in the ligamentization-process during the 1st year after reconstruction. The aims of this study were first to evaluate the vascularization of the pes anserinus superficialis (PAS) by the inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) and second to develop a pedunculated surgical technique for ACL reconstruction, to preserve a maximal amount of natural vascularization of the tendons inserting at the PAS. Materials and Methods: First, the vascularization of the PAS was assessed in 12 fresh-frozen lower extremities. The IMGA was identified at its origin at the popliteal artery and perfused with a methylene blue solution. Second, a pedunculated ACL reconstruction was performed in 5 fresh-frozen lower extremities under maintenance of the distal tendon insertion at PAS. Results: The PAS is a highly vascularized structure. Vessels originate from the IMGA, running along the three tendons of the PAS in the paratendinous tissue. Histologically intratendinous vessels exist; however, perfusion of the inserting tendons through intratendinous vessels was not proven macroscopically. The pedunculated grafts could be positioned and fixed successfully into the bone tunnels in all knees. Conclusion: Although intratendinous vascularization of the tendons of the PAS via the IMGA was not proven, this study indicates a new possibility of ACL reconstruction. The described operation technique can be conducive to shorten the vulnerable phase of the graft-ligamentization after ACL reconstruction.
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Paraplegic flexion contracture of hip joints: An unsolvable problem p. 686
Sailendra Bhattacharyya
Paraplegic flexion contracture of hip joints beyond 90° is a difficult condition to treat for any orthopedic surgeon. There is no fixed protocol of treatment described, by and large it is individualized. A 20 year old female presented with paraplegia for last 15 years due to irrecoverable spinal cord disease with complete sensory and motor loss of both lower extremities and was admitted with acute flexion contracture of both hip joints with trunk resting on thighs. She underwent bilateral proximal femoral resection. Both hip joints were straight immediately after surgery and patient could lie on her back. In a course of time, she started sitting on her buttocks, led a comfortable wheelchair life with a sitting balance. Proximal femoral resection is an effective method to treat long standing irrecoverable paraplegic acute flexion deformity of the hip joint.
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Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal p. 689
Pankaj Jindal
A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.
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Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation p. 693
Jong-Ryoon Baek, Seung Hyun Cho, Yong Seuk Lee, Young Hak Roh
The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the scaphoid.
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An operative manual of proximal femoral fractures p. 697
Sudhir Babhulkar
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