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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-August 2017
Volume 51 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 357-484

Online since Friday, July 7, 2017

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Total hip arthroplasty in 2017 – Current concepts and recent advances Highly accessed article p. 357
Vikas Khanduja
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The history of biomechanics in total hip arthroplasty p. 359
Jan Van Houcke, Vikas Khanduja, Christophe Pattyn, Emmanuel Audenaert
Biomechanics of the hip joint describes how the complex combination of osseous, ligamentous, and muscular structures transfers the weight of the body from the axial skeleton into the appendicular skeleton of the lower limbs. Throughout history, several biomechanical studies based on theoretical mathematics, in vitro, in vivo as well as in silico models have been successfully performed. The insights gained from these studies have improved our understanding of the development of mechanical hip pathologies such as osteoarthritis, hip fractures, and developmental dysplasia of the hip. The main treatment of end-stage degeneration of the hip is total hip arthroplasty (THA). The increasing number of patients undergoing this surgical procedure, as well as their demand for more than just pain relief and leading an active lifestyle, has challenged surgeons and implant manufacturers to deliver higher function as well as longevity with the prosthesis. The science of biomechanics has played and will continue to play a crucial and integral role in achieving these goals. The aim of this article, therefore, is to present to the readers the key concepts in biomechanics of the hip and their application to THA.
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Surgical approaches for total hip arthroplasty p. 368
Vincent M Moretti, Zachary D Post
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become one of the most reliable and patient-requested surgical interventions in all medicine. The procedure can be performed using a variety of surgical approaches, but the posterior approach, direct lateral approach, and direct anterior approach are by far the most common across the globe. This article highlights the history and technique for each of these common approaches. A review of outcomes and complications for each approach are also provided. Each approach has its own unique advantages and disadvantages, but all can be safely and successful utilized for THA. Strong, convincing, high-quality studies comparing the different approaches are lacking at this time. Surgeons are therefore recommended to choose whichever approach they are most comfortable and experienced using. Though not described here, THA can also be done using the anterolateral approach (also known as the Watson Jones approach) as well as the two-incision approach. In addition, recently, some surgeons are utilizing the so-called direct superior approach for THA. While these approaches are far less commonly utilized, they are recognized as viable alternatives to traditional approaches.
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The relative merits of cemented and uncemented prostheses in total hip arthroplasty p. 377
Joanna Maggs, Matthew Wilson
The results of modern cemented and uncemented total hip arthroplasties are outstanding and both systems have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper aims to examine the designs of different types of prostheses, some history behind their development and the reported results. Particular emphasis is placed on cemented stem design and the details of cementing technique.
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Current concepts in acetabular positioning in total hip arthroplasty p. 386
Deepu Bhaskar, Asim Rajpura, Tim Board
Being one of the most successful surgeries in the history of medicine, the indications for total hip arthroplasty have widened and are increasingly being offered to younger and fitter patients. This has also led to high expectations for longevity and outcomes. Acetabular cup position has a significant impact on the results of hip arthroplasty as it affects dislocation, abductor muscle strength, gait, limb lengths, impingement, noise generation, range of motion (ROM), wear, loosening, and cup failure. The variables in cup position are depth, height, and angular position (anteversion and inclination). The implications of change in depth of center of rotation (COR) are medialized versus anatomical positioning. As opposed to traditional medialization with beneficial effects on joint reaction force, the advantages of an anatomical position are increasingly recognized. The maintained acetabular offset offers advantages in terms of ROM, impingement, cortical rim press fit, and maintaining medial bone stock. The height of COR influences muscle activity and limb lengths and available bone stock for cup support. On the other hand, ideal angular position remains a matter of much debate and reliably achieving a target angular position remains elusive. This is not helped by variations in the way we describe angular position, with operative, radiologic, or anatomic definitions being used variably to describe anteversion and inclination. Furthermore, pelvic tilt plays a major role in functional positions of the acetabulum. In addition, commonly used techniques of positioning often do not inform us of the real orientation of the pelvis on operating table, with possibility of significant adduction, flexion, and external rotation of the pelvis being possibilities. This review article brings together the evidence on cup positioning and aims to provide a systematic and pragmatic approach in achieving the best position in individual cases.
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Management of the infected total hip arthroplasty p. 397
D’jon Lopez, Isabel Leach, Elinor Moore, Alan R Norrish
In the United Kingdom approximately 80,000 total hip arthroplasties are undertaken on an average each year. The popularity and demand for this operation are continually increasing. Our understanding of arthroplasty surgery and its complications has evolved greatly, and as a result infection rates are undeniably at an all-time low. The increasing volume of operations being performed does, however, mean that we still continue to see an increased number of cases of infection. There is no doubt that periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) poses a complex clinical and diagnostic predicament to clinicians. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of PJI can not only be detrimental in terms of patient morbidity, but it also poses a significant financial burden to health care institutions. It is therefore in the best interest of the patient, surgeon, and institution to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of this devastating complication. There remains considerable variability in terms of approach to diagnosis and treatment of PJI among orthopedic surgeons. In this review, we will, therefore, examine in detail the current body of evidence available on PJI. We will discuss the most robust and up-to-date methods of diagnosis and offer a comparison of management strategies.
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Outcomes following total hip arthroplasty: A review of the registry data p. 405
Ajay Malviya, Nicole Abdul, Vikas Khanduja
While total hip arthroplasty remains one of the most reliable procedures with excellent, cost-effective outcomes, there remains controversy in the choice of implant in terms of method of fixation, bearing surface, and size of the femoral head, especially in the younger population. This review looks at the possible information base that surgeons can explore before choosing the implant that they are comfortable with. It also looks at the findings of various registries, which readers can use in the process of informed consent. We have provided certain recommendations with specific reference to the method of fixation, bearing surface, and head size that can be backed by the available registry data. However, the information provided should be used only after considering local, financial, and patient-specific issues that surgeons encounter on a daily basis during their practice.
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Management guidelines for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty: A strategy on followup p. 414
Naoki Nakano, Andrea Volpin, Jonathan Bartlett, Vikas Khanduja
Despite the initial promise of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants as the ideal bearing surface for hip replacements and resurfacings, high short term failure rates due to an adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) have led to a dramatic reduction in the number of MoM implants used in the modern era. With over one million patients worldwide having undergone hip operations utilizing a MoM bearing surface, the long term outcomes for such patients remains unknown, and there is much debate as to the most effective management of these patients. Although several regulatory bodies have released guidelines on the management of patients with MoM hips, these recommendations remain open to interpretation, and the most effective management for these patients remains unclear. The aim of this review is to compare the current guidelines for managing patients with MoM hips and also to discuss established ARMD risk factors, evidence regarding the optimum management for patients with MoM hips, and the indications for revision surgery. Furthermore, although specialized laboratory tests and imaging can be used to facilitate clinical decision making, over-reliance on any single tool should be avoided in the decision making process, and surgeons should carefully consider all findings when determining the most appropriate course of action.
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Should total hip arthroplasty be performed acutely in the treatment of acetabular fractures in elderly or used as a salvage procedure only? p. 421
Katharine Hamlin, Gabija Lazaraviciute, Michalis Koullouros, Tarak Chouari, Iain M Stevenson, Steven W Hamilton
Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is now an increasingly common procedure for people sustaining acetabular fractures. The incidence of acetabular fractures among the elderly population is increasing, and contemporary treatment aims to avoid the risks of prolonged incumbency associated with poor bone stock for fixation or inability to comply with limited weightbearing in this patient group. The concept of acute hip arthroplasty as a treatment for acetabular fracture is, therefore, becoming more topical and relevant. Our systematic review investigates whether THAs for acetabular fractures should be performed acutely, with a short delay, or as a late procedure for posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) if it develops. Materials and Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were followed when undertaking this systematic review. Detailed searches were performed on three different databases, using keywords, such as “acetabular fracture,” “acetabular trauma,” “total hip arthroplasty,” “hip arthroplasty,” and “hip prosthesis.” Studies from 1975 to September 2016 were included in the study. All studies included in the review were independently critically appraised by two of the authors. Results: Forty three studies were included in this review. Only two of them actually compared acute and delayed THAs for acetabular fractures with the rest focusing on one or the other. Results were comparable between acute and late THAs in terms of aseptic loosening, operative time, blood loss, Harris Hip Score, and ability to mobilize postoperatively without aid. Complication rates, however, were much higher in the acute group. Conclusion: Evidence based on this topic is scarce and therefore we have to be cautious about drawing a definitive conclusion. The findings of this systematic review do suggest, however, that acute THAs should be considered in elderly patients, where fixation is not possible, or when their health and ability to rehabilitate are poor. It should also be considered in patients where PTOA is very likely, or where there is already some preexisting degenerative osteoarthritis.
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Total hip arthroplasty in patients of post polio residual paralysis: A retrospective case series p. 434
Francisco Borja Sobrón, Álvaro Martínez-Ayora, Manuel Cuervas-Mons, Tania Quevedo, Rafael Laguna, Javier Vaquero
Background: Poliomyelitis is a viral, nervous system disease that affects both the upper and the lower extremities. The treatment of severe coxarthrosis in these patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been widely questioned because of the high risk of subsequent complications. The aim of the present study was to describe both radiological and medium term clinical results in a series of patients with post polio residual paralysis that underwent THA. Materials and Methods: We report a retrospective review of a series of 5 five patients diagnosed with severe coxarthrosis secondary to post polio residual paralysis who were operated between 2008 and 2012. Uncemented THA was performed in all cases by the same surgeon. Clinical evaluation was carried out using the Harris Hip Score (HHS) at the preoperative visit, at 6 months, and annually after surgery. Results: The median age was 47 years, and the median followup was 55 months (interquartile range P25–P75: range 31–72 months). According to the HHS, a significant clinical improvement was observed in all patients with a median score of 81 points (interquartile range P25–P75: range 74–89) at 1 year of followup. A case of relapsing dislocation that required revision surgery of the implant was recorded. No cases of component loosening were found. Conclusion: THA surgery in patients with post polio residual paralysis is a complex procedure with a significant complication rate, but a predictable clinical improvement may encourage surgeons to perform in patients with severe coxarthrosis and moderate functional expectations.
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Longitudinal followup of incidentally detected pseudotumors in patients with metal on metal implants: A retrospective study p. 440
Khushboo Pilania, Bhavin Jankharia
Background: This study describes the significance and temporal evolution of incidentally detected, presumed, metal-induced reactive periprosthetic masses in patients with metal on metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty and its management. The literature concerning the temporal evolution of these lesions is meagre and so it is still unclear, whether asymptomatic patients with periprosthetic collections should undergo revision. Materials and Methods: Patients with MoM hip replacements fitted with a recalled implant (ASR, DuPuy) often undergo magnetic resonance imaging with metal artifact reduction sequences to look for complications. From a cohort of 136 asymptomatic patients, with 181 MoM hips, hips with a mention of periprosthetic masses in their reports at first presentation, and a repeat scan within 6 months to 3 years were selected for this retrospective study. Patients with complications such as loosening, osteomyelitis, and muscle/tendon tears were excluded from the study, and the final study cohort consisted of 55 MoM hips and 61 periprosthetic masses. Ethics committee approval is not required in our institution for retrospective studies. The followup scans of each patient were compared, and the periprosthetic masses were described to have progressed, regressed, or remained unchanged. Results: Comparison revealed that 29 of the 61 reactive masses remained unchanged, 20 regressed, while only 12 showed progression. The study, therefore, has maximum power as the outcome of interest, i.e., regression or unchanged status of the pseudotumors, was seen in approximately 80% (more than half) of the study group. The P value of the study was <0.005. Conclusion: Periprosthetic soft tissue masses are not uncommon in patients with MoM hips. The majority of them in asymptomatic individuals remain stable or regress in the short to medium term, and close followup or decisions on revision surgery may not be warranted in asymptomatic patients.
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Possible vascular injury due to screw eccentricity in minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty p. 447
Nishant Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Amit Rastogi
Background: Vascular injury during minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is uncommon, yet a well-recognized and serious issue. It emerges because of non-visibility of vascular structures proximal to the pelvic bone during reaming, drilling holes, and fixing of screws. Numerous studies have found that screw fixation during cementless THA is beneficial for the initial stability of cup; yet, no anatomical guidelines support angular eccentric screw fixation. Materials and Methods: In this study, we obtained the pelvic arterial-phase computed tomographic data of thirty eight humans and reconstructed the three-dimensional models of osseous and vessel structures. We performed the surgical simulation to fix these structures with cementless cups and screws with angular eccentricities. Results: The effect of screw eccentricities (angular eccentricities of ±17° and ±34°) on the vascular injury was determined. Measurement between screw and adjoining vessels was performed and analyzed statistically to ascertain a comparative risk study for blood vessels that are not visible during surgery. Conclusion: Authors similarly discussed the significant absence of appreciation of quadrant systems proposed by Wasielewski et al. on eccentric screws. Adjustment of quadrant systems provided by Wasielewski et al. is required for acetabular implants with eccentric holes for fixation of acetabular screws.
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Transient osteoporosis of the hip: A mysterious cause of hip pain in adults Highly accessed article p. 455
Raju Vaishya, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Virender Kumar, Vipul Vijay, Abhishek Vaish
Background: Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a poorly understood and forgotten clinical entity. The diagnosis is often delayed, and inappropriate treatment is provided, due to the lack of its awareness among the clinicians. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (11 male and one female) within the age group of 35–50 years, were identified retrospectively from the hospital records between July 2011 and June 2015 who had evidence of TOH on clinical and radiological parameters. Results: All the patients were treated conservatively by nonweight bearing mobilization, anti-inflammatory drugs, bisphosphonates, calcium, and Vitamin D supplements. None of our patients had any symptoms after 6 months of conservative management. The disease did not progress, and there was no evidence of hip joint involvement in any of the cases. Plain radiographs were not diagnostic in the early detection of TOH. Magnetic resonance imaging was found to be highly specific and sensitive in diagnosing TOH. The clinical condition of TOH is characterized by its acute onset of hip pain in middle-aged people, and its symptoms are out of proportion to the radiological findings. Conclusion: The TOH is a nondestructive and self-limiting condition of the hip, which responds well to the conservative treatment. We believe that TOH could be a subset of complex regional pain syndrome type 1, as it has many similarities in clinical presentation and management. Awareness of this entity is important to the clinicians for an early diagnosis and to avoid unnecessary treatment for other mimicking conditions.
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Surgical treatment of sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures using a sinus tarsi approach p. 461
Chul Hyun Park, Dong Yeol Lee
Background: Calcaneum is the most commonly fractured tarsal bone. The optimal treatment for displaced calcaneus fractures involving the posterior facet is surgical. The extensile lateral approach is commonly preferred because it provides sufficient exposure of the subtalar facet. However, this technique has the risk of complications such as wound necrosis and sural nerve injury. Various minimally invasive approaches, such as sinus tarsi approach, limited posterior approach, and percutaneous approach, have been introduced to reduce possible complications. This study was prospectively performed to evaluate the results of the sinus tarsi approach for Sanders Type 2 calcaneal fractures using postoperative computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Between October 2012 and December 2013, 20 Sanders Type 2 calcaneal fractures were consecutively treated using a sinus tarsi approach and checked using CT preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 12 months after surgery. Clinical evaluations were performed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the ankle-hindfoot score developed by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). Radiographic evaluations were performed using calcaneus lateral and axial radiographs, hindfoot alignment radiograph, and CT. Changes in Böhler's angles and calcaneal widths were evaluated both preoperatively and at last followup. Reduction of the posterior facet was graded according to articular step, defect, and angulation of the posterior facet in CT. Results: VAS and AOFAS scores were significantly improved at 1 year after surgery but did not improve further. Böhler's angles and calcaneal widths were significantly improved after surgery. Böhler's angle was significantly smaller at the last followup than immediately after surgery, whereas calcaneal width was maintained. Reduction of the posterior facet was graded excellent in five feet (25%), good in ten (50%), and fair in five (25%) on immediately postoperative CT. Two feet (10%) had transient sural nerve injury which resolved within 3 months. Five feet (20%) had subfibular pain due to a prominent screw heads. Conclusion: Surgical management using a sinus tarsi approach produced good clinical and radiographic results and low wound complications for Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. It is important to have stable fixation and to achieve sufficient reduction of calcaneal width for the prevention of loss of reduction and lateral subfibular impingement.
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Pediatric lumbar pedicle screw placement using navigation templates: A cadaveric study p. 468
Xing Wang, Jun Shi, Shojie Zhang, Zhifeng Zhang, Xiaohe Li, Zhijun Li
Background: Pedicle screw technique is commonly used treatment of adult spinal trauma, tumor, degeneration. The application of pedicle screws is very challenging in children because children have a fast growing spine and spinal pedicle morphology of children and adult has large difference. 3 D reconstruction individual navigation templates improve the success rate of pediatric pedicle screw system. This study is aimed to provide a precise method for lumbar spine pedicle screw placement in children using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping technology. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of cadaver specimens of 4 children were obtained, and the raw data were reconstructed using three-dimensional reconstruction software. Pedicle screws were placed using the conventional method or by using individually designed navigation templates based on the principles of reverse engineering and rapid prototyping technology. Results: We evaluated the accuracy of the pedicle screws placed using the two methods by CT scan. Ten navigation templates were designed for placement of 20 lumbar pedicle screws in the navigation group, and CT scan confirmed that all the screws were placed accurately in the corresponding pedicle. Conversely, of the 20 lumbar pedicle screws placed using the conventional method, 3 screws perforated the pedicle. The findings showed that lumbar pedicle screw placement was successful using navigation templates in children. Conclusions: This technique is simple, easy to master, and allows personalized screw placement, thus providing a new and feasible method for lumbar pedicle screw placement in children.
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Entrapment neuropathy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve: Treated by partial division of sartorius p. 474
Gururaj Hosahalli, Adam Sierakowski, Hari Venkatramani, S Raja Sabapathy
We describe a case of entrapment neuropathy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve as it pierces sartorius muscle. This is a rare cause of anteromedial knee pain that is easily overlooked and may be mistaken as arising from other anatomical structures in that region. The pain was successfully treated by partially dividing the sartorius muscle and translocating the nerve away from the site of entrapment. It is important to consider entrapment neuropathy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve as a differential diagnosis when assessing a patient with anteromedial knee pain.
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Immunohistochemistry in primary B-cell lymphoma of tibia masquerading as chronic osteomyelitis p. 477
Raju Karuppal, Samarth Manjunath, Rajendran V Raman, S Sandhya
The diagnosis between chronic osteomyelitis, Ewing sarcoma and lymphoma often is being confusing in many occasions. As the latter two conditions are malignant, early diagnosis and interventions are crucial. We present a 28 year old male with features of chronic osteomyelitis of right tibia 2 years back then changed through Ewing sarcoma to B-cell lymphoma in the histological diagnosis. This case report highlights the difficulties that arise in diagnosing primary bone lymphomas which may masquerade as chronic osteomyelitis and hence the need for immunohistochemistry in chronic recurrent osteomyelitis.
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Decalcified allograft in repair of lytic lesions of bone: A study to evolve bone bank in developing countries p. 481
Surendra Mohan Tuli
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Author's reply p. 481
Anil Kumar Gupta, Kumar Keshav, Praganesh Kumar
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Turek's orthopaedics – Principles and their applications (7th Edition) p. 483
Surendra Mohan Tuli
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Legends of Indian Orthopedics: Prof. Tarakeshwar Prasad Srivastava p. 484
Bhavuk Garg, SC Goel
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