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  Instructions to Authors
The Editorial Process | Types of Manuscripts and Limits  | Authorship Criteria | Contributors' form and copyright transfer form  | Online Submission of the Manuscripts  | Declaration of patient consent  | Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy  | Electronic Version  | Sending a revised manuscript  | Reprints  | Copyrights  | Checklist


Indian Journal of Orthopaedics welcomes articles that contribute to Orthopaedic knowledge from all countries. Articles are accepted only for exclusive publication in the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics. Previously published  articles, even those in peer-reviewed electronic publications, are not accepted by the Journal. Published articles and illustrations become the property of the Journal. All studies should be carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the "Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journal" developed by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (April 2010). The uniform requirements and specific requirement of Indian Journal of Orthopaedics are summarized below. Before sending a manuscript contributors are requested to check for the latest instructions available. Instructions are also available from the website of the journal ( and from the manuscript submission site (


The Editorial Process

  • The manuscript will be reviewed for possible publication with the understanding that they are being submitted to one journal at a time and have not been published, simultaneously submitted or already accepted for publication elsewhere. Violation may lead to serious action against authors as per COPE guidelines.

  • The Editorial board will review all submitted manuscripts initially.

  • Manuscripts with insufficient or poor originality, serious scientific flaws, or absence of a definite message are rejected at first instance. Journal will not return unaccepted manuscripts.

  • If found worth a review, the manuscripts are sent to two or more expert reviewers. The review process is blinded for author, Institution or place of origin of the manuscript. Double blind peer-review process is being followed by the journal.

  • Editorial team takes a final decision based on the comments received from the reviewers.

  • The contributors are usually informed about the reviewers' comments and acceptance/rejection within a period of 10 to 12 weeks.

  • Articles accepted would be copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style and format.

  • Page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author, which has to be returned within seven days.


Types of Manuscripts and Limits

  • Original articles:Randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, case-control series and surveys with high response rate. Articles should be up to 3000 words, excluding references and abstract.

  • Review articles:Systematic critical assessments of literature and data sources. Articles should be up to 4000 words, excluding references and abstract. Review articles should reflect systematic reviews and contain substantive citations from current literature. The authors must state how they selected the literature and whether and how they judged the study quality. The publication of review article is the prerogative of the editor.

  • Case reports:New/interesting/very rare cases can be reported. Cases with clinical significance or implications will be given priority. Mere reporting of a rare case may not be considered. Word limit for a case report is up to 1000 words (excluding references and abstract) and up to 10 references.

  • Letter to the Editor:Are acceptable but these should be for articles published in the past issues of the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics.  A letter should be short, decisive observation with a word limit of up to 400 words with a maximum of 4 references.



Authorship Criteria

Authorship credit should be based only on substantial contributions:       

  • To conception and design or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data

  • Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content

  • Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship

  • General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship

  • Order of naming the contributors should be based on the relative contribution of the contributor. Once

       submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors

  • For an original article the number of contributors should not exceed six; for case reports, letter to the Editor

       and review articles, the number of contributors should not exceed four

  • A justification should be included, if the number of contributors exceeds these limits

  • Only those who have done substantial work in a particular field can write a review article. A short summary

        of the work done in the field of review should accompany the manuscript.


Contributors' form and copyright transfer form

  • The contributors' form and copyright transfer form duly signed by all the authors / contributors (in the same sequence as to be published in the journal) is to be uploaded directly on website at the time of submission of new manuscript. Manuscript submission will be considered incomplete till the completed forms are submitted.

  • The entire contents of the Journal are protected under Indian and international copyrights. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 Unported License.


Online Submission of the Manuscripts


  • Manuscript is to be submitted only online from

  • New authors will have to register as “author”, which is a simple two step procedure

Manuscript Preparation

  • The text of observational and experimental original articles should be divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Figure legends and Tables . Avoid sub-headings in these sections as far as possible.

  • The language should be British English.

  • Use double spacing throughout,

  • Number the pages consecutively beginning with the title page.

  • Line number the article file beginning from the title of manuscript and should continue to the next page till the end of manuscript.

  • Articles should be prepared in two files - first page file and the article file -


First Page file


Prepare the title page and the covering letter using a word processor programme.  All information which can reveal your identity should be here.


The title page should include -


  • Type of manuscript (e.g. Original article, Case Report etc.)

  • Title should be concise, but informative

  • Running title or short title should not be of more than 50 characters

  • The name by which each contributor is known (First name, initials of middle name and Last name), with his or her highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation

  • The name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed

  • The name, address, phone numbers, facsimile numbers and e-mail address of the contributor responsible for correspondence

  • The total number of pages, total number of photographs and word counts separately for abstract and for the text (excluding the references and abstract)

  • Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these

  • Acknowledgement, if any

  • If the manuscript was presented as part or whole at a scientific meeting, mention the organization, place and the exact date on which it was read.

  • A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest

  • A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors

  • A statement that the manuscript represents honest work

  • A statement about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work. Any such work should be referred to specifically and referenced in the new paper

  • Give contribution of each author

  • Submit complete details of all the authors/contributors including their e-mail ID.

The Covering letter should include –

  • A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors and that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work.

  • The name, address, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs.

Article File

  • The main text of the article, beginning from abstract upto references (including tables) should be in this file. Do not include any information such as acknowledgement, your names/institution etc. in this file.

  • Should carry the full title of the manuscript

  • Structured abstract (in case of an original article) consisting of four paragraphs, with the headings: Background (the primary research question must be clearly stated here), Materials & Methods, Results and Conclusion.

  • Unstructured abstract is required for case reports and review articles.

  • Abstract will precede the text of the published paper.

  • Below the abstract provide three to ten key words or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross indexing your article

  • Provide minimum three to six MeSH terms

  • Do not incorporate images, graphs & charts in the article file

  • Use doc / docx format files. Do not zip the files






  • Structured abstract (in case of an original article) consisting of four paragraphs, with the headings: Background (the primary research question must be clearly stated here), Materials & Methods, Results and Conclusion.

  • Unstructured abstract is required for case reports and review articles




  • Provide three to ten key words or short phrases that will assist indexers in cross indexing your article


MESH terms


  • Provide minimum three to six MeSH terms




  • State the purpose of the article and summarize the rationale for the study or observation

  • State your hypothesis or the primary research question and the purpose of the study.

Materials & Methods

  • Include only information that was available at the time of plan or protocol for the study written.

  • All information obtained during the conduct of the study should be mentioned in the results section.

Selection and Description of Participants

  • Describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly

  • Describe the inclusion and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population because the relevance of such variables as age and sex to the object of research is not always clear.

  • Authors should explain why only subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded. The guiding principle should be clear about how and why a study was done in a particular way. When authors use variables such as race or ethnicity, they should define how they measured the variables and justify their relevance.

Technical information

  • Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses) and procedures in sufficient details to allow other workers to reproduce the results.

  • Give references of established methods, including statistical methods. Provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known.

  • Describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them and evaluate their limitations.

  • Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.

  • Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

  • Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups) and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman DG: The CONSORT Statement: Revised Recommendations for Improving the Quality of Reports of Parallel-Group Randomized Trials. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:657-662, also available at

  • All Clinical Trials (RCTs) done in India should be registered with the Clinical Trials Registry of India, set up by the Indian Council of Medical Research (website: before starting study. Authors must provide the CTRI Registration number  at the time of submission of manuscript.

  • Indian Journal of Orthopaedics favors registration of clinical trials and is a signatory to the Statement on publishing clinical trials in Indian biomedical journals. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics would publish clinical trials that have been registered with a clinical trial registry set up by the Indian Council of Medical Research (website: that allows free online access to public. Registration in the following trial registers is acceptable:;;;;; and This is applicable to clinical trials that have begun enrollment of subjects in or after June 2008. Clinical trials that have commenced enrollment of subjects prior to June 2008 would be considered for publication in Indian Journal of Orthopaedics only if they have been registered retrospectively with clinical trial registry that allows unhindered online access to public without charging any fees. Authors must provide the CTRI Registration number  at the time of submission of manuscript.

  • For overseas manuscripts, RCTs should be registered with appropriate authority of their country and must provide the Registration number at the time of submission of manuscript.

  • All systematic reviews and metaanalysis are to be registered with PROSPERO ( and registration number provided at the time of submission of manuscript.



  • When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (available at

  • Do not use patients' names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material.

  • When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the Institution's or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

  • All human and animal studies should be accompanied by a certificate of Ethics clearance, issued by an appropriate Institutional Review Board/Ethics Committee/ Departmental Board of Study or an equivalent authority of competence.


  • Statistical methods should be described in detail.

  • The statement "no significant difference was found between two groups" cannot be made unless a power study was done and the value of alpha or beta is reported. Use of the word significant requires reporting of a p value.

  • Ninety five per cent confidence intervals are required whenever the results of survivorship analysis are given in the text or graphs.

  • Use of the word correlation requires reporting of the correlation coefficient.


  • Tables or similar diagrams can be used but must not duplicate material already expressed in the text.

  • Provide a detailed report on the data obtained during the study.

  • Results obtained after less than two years of follow up are rarely accepted.

  • For studies pertaining to joint replacements, a minimum of five years follow up is desirable.

  • All data in the text must be consistent throughout the manuscript including any illustrations, legends, or tables.

  • For studies of less than 20 subjects, percentages should not be used.

  • Extra or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal.

  • Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries

  • Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables.

  • Avoid non-technical use of technical terms in statistics, such as "random" (which implies a randomizing device), "normal," "significant," "correlations," and "sample." Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.

  • Use established criteria to express your results.


  • This section must be succinct, pointing out the relevance of the work described in the paper and its contribution to current knowledge.

  • The results must be interpreted clearly, and deficiencies expressed.

  • Discussion of pertinent references must be concise and short.

  • What does your study show? Is your hypothesis affirmed or refuted?

  • Discuss the importance of this article with regard to the relevant world literature; a complete literature review is unnecessary.

  • Analyze your data and discuss their strengths, their weaknesses, and the limitations of the study.


  • References in the text should include only those that are important and have been studied in full by the authors.

  • References should only be used from published work. Proof of acceptance is required for references cited "in press".

  • References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order).

  • Identify references in text (superscript), tables and legends by Arabic

  • References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.

  • Use the style of the examples (Kulkarni SB, Chitre RG, Satoskar RS. Serum proteins in tuberculosis. J Postgrad Med 1960;6:113-20), which are based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus.

  • List the first six contributors followed by et al.

  • The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus.

  • Use complete name of the journal for non-indexed journals.

  • Avoid using abstracts as references.

  • Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source.

  • Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.

  • For scientific articles, contributors should obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication.

  • The commonly cited types of references are shown here, for other types of references such as electronic media, newspaper items, etc. please refer to ICMJE Guidelines ( or

  • Download a PowerPoint presentation on common reference styles and using the reference checking facility on the manuscript submission site.

Articles in Journals

Standard journal article:

Kulkarni SB, Chitre RG, Satoskar RS.Serum proteins in tuberculosis. J Postgrad Med 1960;6:113-20.

List the first six contributors followed by et al.

  1. Volume with supplement: Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1:275-82.

  2. Issue with supplement: Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. SeminOncol 1996; 23(1, Suppl 2):89-97.

Books and Other Monographs as references


Examples -

  • Personal author(s): Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

  • Editor(s), compiler(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

  • Chapter in a book: Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. pp. 465-78.


  • Tables should be self explanatory, editable and should not duplicate textual material.

  • Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.

  • Type each table with double spacing on a separate sheet of paper. If the table need be continued, repeat the title on a second sheet followed by "(contd.)".

    • Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.

  • Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.

  • Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table.

    • Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.

For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: *, †, ‡, §, ||, , **, ††, ‡‡

Illustrations (Figures)

  • Upload good and printable quality colour photographs on website in jpeg format at the time of submission of new manuscript

  • E ach image should not be less than 500 KB in size.

  • Images must be of high resolution, scanned at 300 dpi and approximately 1200 x 1800 pixels in size.

  • Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.

  • The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.

  • If photographs of people are used, subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.

  • If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.

  • The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size.

Legends for Illustrations

  • Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations.

  • Legends should also be included at the end of the article file i.e. after list of references

  • When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend.

  • Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

Declaration of patient consent

Authors are to ensure that the articles having patient data contains the patient’s declaration statement.  Following statement is to be given by authors in the article file before the “Financial statement”, “Source of Support”, “Conflict of Interest” and “References” sections:


“The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.”


Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy


Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures unless they have obtained informed consent from the patients. The journal abides by ICMJE guidelines:


  1. Authors, not the journals nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.


  1. If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity, or a description that has obvious indication to the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript.”


Electronic Version


  • For a revised manuscript name the file with the manuscript number (e.g. jcrt58). Use only word-processing program e.g. Microsoft Word.

  • Do not use 'oh' (O) for 'zero' (0), 'el' (l) for one (1).

  • Do not use space bar for indentation.

  • Do not type headings or any other text in ALL CAPITALS.

  • Do not break words at the end of lines.

  • Do not use an extra hard return/enter between paragraphs.

  • Do not insert a tab, indent, or extra spaces before beginning of a paragraph.

  • Do not use software's facility of automatic referencing, footnotes, headers, footers, etc.

  • Use a hyphen only to hyphenate compound words.

  • Use only one letter space at the end of sentence.

  • Use hard return/enter only at the end of paragraphs and display lines (e.g. titles, headings and subheadings). Incorporate notes or footnotes in the text, within parentheses, rather than their usual place at the foot of the page.

  •  Provide all the tables at the end of the manuscript.  Charts/graphs are to be uploaded on website as image in jpeg format.

Sending a revised manuscript


  • Before submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to ensure that each and every comment of the reviewers/editorial board is answered.

  • Also mention the changes in the column in form of Page No. & Line No.

  • These changes should be clearly mentioned in the revised manuscript.




  • Journal provides free printed reprints to the corresponding authors


  • The whole of the literary matter in the journal is copyright and cannot be reproduced without the written permission of the Editorial Board


  • To be tick marked as applicable and attached in the First Page File


Manuscript Title 
Covering letter

  • Signed by all contributors

  • Previous publication / presentations mentioned

  • Source of funding mentioned

  • Conflicts of interest disclosed


  • Middle name initials provided

  • Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided

  • Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions

  • Identity not revealed in paper except title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of institute in photographs, etc.)

Presentation and format

  • Double spacing

  • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides

  • Title page contains all the desired information

  • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)

  • Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript

  • Abstract provided (about 150 words for case reports and 250 words for original articles)

  • Structured abstract provided for an original article

  • Key words provided (three or more)

  • Introduction of 75-100 words

  • Headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)

  • References cited in superscript

  • References according to the journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked

Language and grammar

  • Uniformly English

  • Abbreviations spelt out in full for the first time

  • Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out

  • Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out

Tables and figures

  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text

  • Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided

  • Figures necessary and of good quality (colour) uploaded on website in jpeg format

  • Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)

  • Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)

  • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken)

  • Credit note for borrowed figures/tables provided

Contributors' form

(To be modified as applicable and one singed copy attached with the manuscript)



I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable), as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter.


I/We hereby transfer(s), assign(s), or otherwise convey(s) all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, in the event that such work is published by the Indian Journal of Orthopaedics. The Indian Journal of Orthopaedics shall own the work, including 1) copyright; 2) the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3) the right to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4) the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format.


We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf.

The article will be published under the terms of the latest Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License, unless the journal notifies the author otherwise in writing.

All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.


                 Name                                                  Signature                                               Date signed

1               ______________________           ____________________        _________________
2               ______________________           ____________________         ________________
3               ______________________           ____________________         ________________
4              _______________________          ____________________         _________________  (up to 4 contributors for case report/review/letter to editor)
5              _________________________      _____________________       __________________
6             _________________________       _____________________       ________________ __(up to 6 contributors for original studies)


Click here to download instructions

Click here to download copyright form


These ready to use templates are made to help the contributors write as per the requirements of the Journal.

Save the templates on your computer and use them with a word processor program. 
Click to open the file and save as the manuscript file.

In the program keep 'Document Map' and 'Comments' on from 'View' menu to navigate through the file. 

Download Template for Original Articles/ABSTRACT Reports. (.DOT file)

Download Template for Case Reports.  (.DOT file)

Download Template for Review Articles.  (.DOT file)

Download Template for Letter to the Editor.  (.DOT file)

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