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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 420-425

Outcomes of core decompression with or without nonvascularized fibular grafting in avascular necrosis of femoral head: Short term followup study

Department of Orthopaedics, UCMS and GTB Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sumanth Lakshminarayana
Flat No-59D, Pocket F, GTB Enclave, New Delhi - 110 095
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_310_18

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Background: Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head usually occurs in the third to fifth decade. The treatment options depend on the stage of disease varying from nonoperative treatment to surgical procedure including core decompression (CD) with or without nonvascularized or vascularized fibular graft, muscle pedicle bone grafting, osteotomies, and arthroplasty. Finite life of the total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis limits its use in young adults or in middle aged. In this study, we envisage to evaluate the clinicoradiological outcomes of CD and nonvascularized fibular grafting in early stages of AVN femoral head. Materials and Methods: Our study is longitudinal observational study including 76 hips (46 patients) in the age group of 18–48 years (mean 30.07 years). Ficat and Arlet staging system was used and only early stages, that is, Stage 1 (n = 36 hips) and Stage 2 (n = 40 hips) were included in the study. The cases with traumatic AVN were excluded. All patients in Stage 1 underwent CD (Group 1) and those in Stage 2 underwent CD and fibular grafting (Group 2). Preoperative Harris Hip Score (HHS), visual analog score (VAS), plain radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with serial postoperative HHS, VAS, plain radiographs, and MRI taken at different intervals. Results: Average period of followup was 53.5 months (44–63 months). Radiological progression was not seen in 55 hips out of 76 hips (72.3%), whereas 21 hips (27.6%) demonstrated signs of progression and collapse. Failure of surgery was defined as progression of the disease, which was 25% (n = 9) in Group 1and 30% (n = 12) Group 2. Median values of HHS at the end of the followup in Group 1 was 77 and in Group 2 was 71.5 compared to the preoperative HHS of 48 and 62 in Group 1 and 2, respectively. Median values of VAS at the end of the followup in Stage 1 was 0 and in Stage 2 was 2 compared to the preoperative VAS of 6 and 8 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusion: CD with or without fibular grafting is effective in preserving the sphericity of the femoral head and to delay the progression of the AVN of femoral head in the early stages, that is, Stage 1 and Stage 2 and aids in the early revascularization of ischemic femoral head and is a useful modality to negate or delay the requirement of THA.

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