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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-34

The values of receptor activator nuclear Kappa-B ligand expression in stage III giant cell tumor of the bone

1 Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
2 Department of Pathology, School of Medical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Wan Faisham Wan Ismail
Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ortho.IJOrtho_153_17

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Background: Giant cell tumor(GCT) of bone is a benign locally aggressive primary bone tumor which is risky for local recurrences and pulmonary metastasis. Till date, there are still many uncertainties in predicting the aggressiveness of GCT. We aim to investigate whether receptor activator nuclear kappa-B ligand(RANKL) expression may determine the prognosis of the lesion. Materials and Methods: We examined RANKL expression in 39patients(21males, 18females) by immunohistochemistry. Four patients(10%) were presented with tumor recurrence, eight patients(20%) were complicated with lung metastasis, and two patients(5%) were presented with both recurrence and lung metastasis. Positive RANKL expression was assessed according to a scoring system evaluating the percentage of the immunostained epithelial area and the staining intensity. The cumulative score was calculated to determine the final score value. Data were analyzed using PASW version18.0 and independent t-test between nonrecurrence/recurrence groups, and nonlung metastasis/lung metastasis groups. Significance was set at P <0.05. Results: Thirty-two patients(82%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining percentage from whole stromal cell population(>75%), 6patients scored 2, and 1patient scored 1. Nine patients(23%) scored 3 in RANKL-staining intensity(most intense), 19patients(48%) scored 2, and 11patients(29%) scored 1. Twenty six patients(67%) had strong RANKL expression(total score of 5–6), 12patients(31%) showed moderate score(3–4) whereas only 1patient(2%) showed weak RANKL expression. Together, the mean value of RANKL-staining percentage was 2.79, intensity 1.95 and the total score 4.77. The mean RANKL-staining percentage between recurrence and nonrecurrence groups was statistically significant(P=0.009). There was no significant difference in the mean staining intensity and total score between nonrecurrence and recurrence groups, and staining percentage staining intensity and a total cumulative score of RANKL expression between lung metastasis and nonlung metastasis groups. Conclusion: RANKL expression is generally high in Stage III GCT and is a reliable prognostic marker in predicting the risk of local recurrence however not in lung metastasis.

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