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SYMPOSIUM - OSTEOSARCOMA
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 48  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 238-246

Classification, imaging, biopsy and staging of osteosarcoma


Department of Orthopaedics, Pt B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Zile Singh Kundu
1393, Sector 3, Rohtak, Haryana - 124 001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5413.132491

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Osteosarcoma is the most common primary osseous malignancy excluding malignant neoplasms of marrow origin (myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia) and accounts for approximately 20% of bone cancers. It predominantly affects patients younger than 20 years and mainly occurs in the long bones of the extremities, the most common being the metaphyseal area around the knee. These are classified as primary (central or surface) and secondary osteosarcomas arising in preexisting conditions. The conventional plain radiograph is the best for probable diagnosis as it describes features like sun burst appearance, Codman's triangle, new bone formation in soft tissues along with permeative pattern of destruction of the bone and other characteristics for specific subtypes of osteosarcomas. X-ray chest can detect metastasis in the lungs, but computerized tomography (CT) scan of the thorax is more helpful. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lesion delineates its extent into the soft tissues, the medullary canal, the joint, skip lesions and the proximity of the tumor to the neurovascular structures. Tc99 bone scan detects the osseous metastases. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is used for metastatic workup and/or local recurrence after resection. The role of biochemical markers like alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase is pertinent for prognosis and treatment response. The biopsy confirms the diagnosis and reveals the grade of the tumor. Enneking system for staging malignant musculoskeletal tumors and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging systems are most commonly used for extremity sarcomas.


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