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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 375-378

Evaluation of the clinical signs of anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries


Department of Orthopaedics, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Dhavalakumar K Jain
6, Greenacre, Wigan, WN1 3NY, United Kingdom

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5413.55466

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Background: The diagnostic accuracy of anterior drawer (AD) sign, Lachman test and the pivot shift test for anterior cruciate ligament injury and McMurray test for medial and lateral meniscus is varied with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 2 to 100%. Generally, it is accepted that the pivot shift test is the most specific test to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and that the Lachman test is more sensitive than AD sign. This study was undertaken to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and efficiency for the above-mentioned diagnostic tests. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight male patients with clinical ACL injury were examined in the outpatient department and under anaesthesia, the findings were compared with arthroscopy. Result: The sensitivity and specificity for the Lachman test, AD sign and pivot shift test performed in the outpatient setting are 78.6 and 100%, 89.3 and 100%, and 75 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the Lachman test, AD sign, and pivot shift test performed under anesthesia are 92.9 and 100%, 92.9 and 100%, and 100 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the McMurray test for medial and lateral meniscus were 35.7 and 85.7% and 22.2 and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: The Lachman test, AD sign and pivot shift test are highly specific tests to diagnose ACL laxity in a non-acute setting; pivot shift test under anesthesia is the most sensitive and specific test for diagnosing ACL laxity in a non-acute setting and the McMurray test is not a sensitive test to diagnose meniscal injury in the presence of ACL injury.


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